ISSN: 1302-2636 | E-ISSN: 2757-668X
The Mills in the Ottoman Period Izmir City Center: Their Role in the Industrialization Process of the City and its Perception [Tasarım Kuram]
Tasarım Kuram. 2022; 18(36): 53-62 | DOI: 10.14744/tasarimkuram.2022.05658

The Mills in the Ottoman Period Izmir City Center: Their Role in the Industrialization Process of the City and its Perception

Halil İbrahim Alpaslan
Dokuz Eylul University Faculty of Architecture, Department of Architecture, Department of History of Architecture, Izmir, Türkiye

The aim of this study is to bring together the limited information in visual and written sources about the now nonextant mills in the Ottoman period İzmir city center, and to reveal their history by making observations and comments on their contribution to the architectural image of the city that was taking shape with the industrialization processes.
The information about the mills in the İzmir city center is basically obtained from two different sources. The first of these is what historical written sources and contemporary researchers convey about the mills, particularly the mills of İzmir. These are mostly limited to quantitative data such as the number of mills, paid taxes, and grain processing capacity, which do not give any clues about architectural features. The second group of sources are drawings and photographs. By scanning the city plans, engravings and photographs of the city center, the locations of the mills were in these documents, as well as the 19th century city plans that are drawn with a character close to today’s techniques.
In some of the engravings and plans, the mills are shown schematically, while in others the architectural details and dimensions are conveyed more carefully. Undoubtedly, photographs provide much more precise data on this subject, but unfortunately, more closer photographs of the Ottoman period Izmir mills were not available. In fact, this absence can be interpreted as an indication of the perception that mills appear as industrial structures devoid of aesthetic qualities. Mills are generally located in very small sizes in silhouette photographs, and since they come in simple designs to serve their industrial purposes, it is very difficult to find the kind of information from which rich architectural interpretations can be drawn. However, thanks to these photographs, at least the heights of the structures can be estimated approximately. The emergence of city plans close to today’s drawing techniques in the 19th century constitutes another important source group in this context. The Graves plans of 1836 and the Saad plans of 1876 especially provide important data about the mills. Thanks to the Graves map, it was possible to identify the earliest steam-powered mill in the city, and thanks to the Saad map, the plan, shape, and dimensions of many mills were able to be determined.
Mills are structures that are far from decoration and are not mentioned much in architectural history narratives due to their functional architecture. For this reason, in many studies dealings with the Ottoman period Izmir, mills are either not included at all or they are conveyed with quantitative data. However, with the increase of engravings showing the city, especially with the 17th century, it is impossible not to notice the prominent role of the mills in the city silhouette.
Since windmills developed as tower-shaped high structures to receive the wind better, they also had a strong visibility in the city’s silhouette. Even though the windmills in Izmir could not compete with their counterparts in Dutch and Belgian cities in terms of an emphatic presence in the skyline, their modest appearance in İzmir, as documented in engravings and photographs of the period, attests to an important architectural quality in the history of the image of the city that deserves to addressed in the right perceptual context.
While the mills in Değirmendağı and Halkapınar determined the northern and southern borders of the city center in the early periods, the Gout mill, which was built on the coast in the 19th century, became one of the most important figures in the perception of the city from the sea, albeit for a short time. In addition to the effects of the mills on the perception of the city, the traces of the early reflections of the industrial revolution in the city carry them to an important point for the industrial history of the city. In this context, detection of the earliest steam engine in the Punta mill, which was built at the beginning of the 19th century, can be considered as an important point in terms of the city’s taking part in the history of the industrial revolution.

Keywords: Mill, Ottoman Izmir, industrial architecture, history of Izmir.

Osmanlı Döneminde İzmir Kent Merkezindeki Değirmenlerin Kentin Algısı ve Sanayileşme Sürecindeki Rolleri

Halil İbrahim Alpaslan
Dokuz Eylül Üniversitesi Mimarlık Fakültesi, Mimarlık Bölümü, Mimarlık Tarihi Ana Bilim Dalı, İzmir, Türkiye

İzmir kent merkezinde Osmanlı döneminde inşa edilen değirmenleri konu alan bu çalışmanın amacı literatürde çok fazla yer bulamamış bu yapıların görsel ve yazılı kaynaklardaki izlerinin bir araya getirerek tarihçelerini ortaya koymak ve kentin mimari algısına ve sanayileşme süreçlerindeki rollerine dair tespit ve yorumlar üretmektir.
İzmir kent merkezindeki değirmenler hakkındaki bilgiler temelde iki farklı kaynaktan elde edilmektedir. Bunlardan birincisi çağdaş araştırmacıların ve tarihsel yazılı kaynakların değirmenler ve özellikle İzmir değirmenleri hakkındaki aktarımlarıdır. Bu aktarımlar çoğunlukla değirmen adedi, ödenen vergi, tahıl işleme kapasitesi gibi mimari özelliklere dair ipucu vermeyen nicel verilerle sınırlıdır. İkinci kaynak grubu ise çizim ve fotoğraflardır. İzmir kent merkezini kapsayan planlar, gravürler ve 19. yüzyılla birlikte ortaya çıkan fotoğraflar taranarak bu belgelerde değirmenler tespit edilmeye çalışılacaktır. Yine 19. yüzyılda günümüz tekniklerine yakın karakterde çizilen kent planlarından da bu bağlamda yararlanılacaktır.
Değirmenler bezemeden uzak işlevsel mimarileri nedeni ile mimarlık tarihi anlatılarında çok fazla değinilmeyen yapılardır. Buna koşut olarak Osmanlı dönemi İzmir’ini ele alan bir çok çalışmada değirmenlere ya hiç değinilmemiş ya da nicel verilerin aktarılması ile yetinilerek değinilmiştir. Ancak özellikle 17. yüzyılda, kenti gösteren gravürlerin artması ile birlikte değirmenlerin kent siluetindeki belirleyiciliklerini fark etmemek mümkün değildir. Erken dönemlerde Değirmendağı ve Halkapınar’daki değirmenler kent merkezinin kuzey ve güney sınırlarını belirlerken 19. yüzyılda özellikle sahile inşa edilen Gout değirmeni kısa süreli de olsa kentin denizden algısındaki en önemli figürlerden biri haline gelmiştir. Değirmenlerin kent algısına etkilerinin yanı sıra sanayi devriminin kentteki erken yansımalarının izlerini taşımaları onları kentin sanayi tarihi için de önemli bir noktaya taşımaktadır. Bu bağlamda en erken tarihli buhar makinasının 19. yüzyılın başında inşa edilen Punta değirmeninde tespit edilebilmesi kentin sanayi devrimine eklemlenme tarihi açısından da önemli bir ipucu olarak değerlendirilebilir.

Anahtar Kelimeler: Değirmen, Osmanlı İzmir’i, endüstriyel mimari, İzmir tarihi

Halil İbrahim Alpaslan. The Mills in the Ottoman Period Izmir City Center: Their Role in the Industrialization Process of the City and its Perception. Tasarım Kuram. 2022; 18(36): 53-62

Corresponding Author: Halil İbrahim Alpaslan, Türkiye
Manuscript Language: Turkish
LookUs & Online Makale