The construction and use of buildings cover %40 of the overall energy consumption in the world. Cooling and heating costs (to provide thermal comfort to the users) are a massive part of this consumption. The energy-efficient design of the building envelopes, where the communication between the external environment and the interior environment is at its highest, will significantly reduce energy consumption. The best energy-efficient design ideas are hidden in nature that has accumulated knowledge for thousands of years.
Air conditioning systems constitute a large proportion of energy consumption in built environments. For this reason, it is essential to construct the building envelope with energy efficient design decisions. Heating and cooling costs, which constitute the majority of the energy used by the buildings, can be reduced by thermoregulation, which can be defined as keeping the indoor temperature within a particular and narrow range without being affected by the change in the outdoor temperature. Nature offers architects a significant data bank on thermoregulation as on many other subjects. The idea of transferring the physiological, morphological, and behavioral adaptation ideas developed by organisms in nature to survive in harsh conditions for billions of years to the field of architecture has been the starting point of this research.
This paper aims to answer the question: Can thermoregulation solutions in nature be a source of inspiration for energy-efficient designs in building envelopes where heat gain and heat loss occur the most? For this purpose, the applicability of thermoregulation methods developed by organisms in nature to provide thermoregulation for building envelopes was investigated. It aimed to provide designers with new perspectives apart from traditional design methods.
Firstly, a literature review on the concepts of thermoregulation and biomimicry was studied. Thermoregulation methods developed by living creatures in nature according to the ambient temperatures they live in were investigated. Afterwards, the concept of biomimicry was examined, and its intersection with architecture was investigated. Five samples designed inspired by living things that developed thermoregulation methods according to various environmental conditions were investigated for fieldwork. Some creatures, which have the same need to keep their internal body temperatures within a specific range, struggle with high temperatures, and some with low temperatures. It has been analyzed how the physiological, morphological, and behavioral adaptations were developed according to the needs of the living things in the examined samples affect the design. The selection of the examined organisms from different climatic regions allowed us to observe the changes in thermoregulation strategies. A table was created by comparing the data obtained, the climatic region in which the living things live, the heat transfer methods they developed, the features they developed to provide heat transfer, and the adaptation methods. It has been examined whether designs inspired by nature while providing thermoregulation in building envelopes reach the goal of energy-efficient design.
As a result of the evaluation, it has been seen that the idea of being inspired by nature, whose biological information pool contains countless solutions, has potential in the discipline of architecture, as in many disciplines. It has been seen that the application of thermoregulation methods of living things in nature in architectural designs with a biomimetic design approach can achieve the energy-efficient design goal of architects. It was concluded that successful results could be obtained by applying the thermoregulation methods developed by living things in nature to architectural design, that these results can only be possible with interdisciplinary studies, and that nature can offer innovative solutions to the thermoregulation problems faced by designers.
The environmental conditions of the architectural product to be designed and the users requirements should be well analyzed. Solutions of a correctly analyzed problem to similar problems by living things in nature should be investigated. Integrating solutions produced by nature in building envelope design should be tested using various simulation programs. Billions of living organisms in nature create an unlimited pool of examples with new features waiting to be discovered. This biological information data pool, which nature has accumulated for centuries, contains countless solutions to the problems that designers face or will encounter.
Yapılı çevrelerdeki enerji tüketiminin büyük bir oranını iklimlendirme sistemleri oluşturmaktadır. Bu nedenle yapı kabuğunun enerji etkin tasarım kararları ile elde edilmesi önemlidir. Yapıların kullandığı enerjinin çoğunluğunu oluşturan ısıtma ve soğutma giderleri, iç ortam sıcaklığının, dış ortam sıcaklığının değişmesinden etkilenmeden belirli ve dar bir aralıkta tutulması olarak tanımlanabilecek
termoregülasyon ile azaltılabilir. Doğa pek çok konuda olduğu gibi termoregülasyon konusunda da mimarlara geniş bir veri bankası sunmaktadır. Doğadaki organizmaların milyarlarca yıl boyunca zorlu koşullarda hayatta kalmak için geliştirdikleri fizyolojik, morfolojik ve davranışsal adaptasyon fikirlerinin mimariye aktarılması fikri bu araştırmanın çıkış noktası olmuştur. Makalede doğadaki organizmaların geliştirdiği termoregülasyon yöntemlerinin yapı kabuklarının termoregülasyonunu sağlamak amacıyla uygulanabilirliği araştırılmış ve tasarımcılara geleneksel tasarım yöntemlerinin dışında yeni bakış açıları kazandırmak hedeflenmiştir. Bu doğrultuda öncelikle doğadaki ısı transfer şekilleri ve organizmaların termoregülasyon sağlama yöntemleri araştırılmıştır. Daha sonra doğadaki canlıların termoregülasyon yöntemlerini taklit ederek tasarlanan mimari yapı kabukları değerlendirilmiştir. Çalışmanın sonucunda, doğadaki canlıların geliştirdiği termoregülasyon yöntemlerinin mimari tasarıma uygulanması ile başarılı sonuçlar alınabileceği, bu sonuçların ancak disiplinler arası çalışmalar ile mümkün olabileceği ve tasarımcıların karşılaştığı termoregülasyon sorunlarına doğanın yenilikçi çözümler önerebileceği görülmüştür.