ISSN: 1302-2636 | E-ISSN: 2757-668X
Evaluation of Out-Of-Function Urban Industrial Heritage Areas in Terms of Adaptive Reuse: The Case of Sakarya Donatim Park [Tasarım Kuram]
Tasarım Kuram. 2022; 18(37): 152-170 | DOI: 10.14744/tasarimkuram.2022.25901

Evaluation of Out-Of-Function Urban Industrial Heritage Areas in Terms of Adaptive Reuse: The Case of Sakarya Donatim Park

Melike Nur Saraylı1, İsmail Hakkı Demir2
1Eskişehir Osmangazi University, Faculty of Architecture and Design, Department of Architecture, Eskişehir, Türkiye
2Sakarya University Faculty of Art, Design and Architecture, Department of Architecture, Sakarya, Türkiye

After the transition from nomadic life to agricultural civilization, the production settlements of the Industrial Revolution period, which transformed the lives and cultures of societies, have been the source of significant changes in urban structuring for more than two centuries. These structures, which were seen as a symbol of innovation and development in the past century, and which have been abandoned because they have lost their original functions, are evaluated with the “Adaptive Reuse” approach as a cultural heritage, instead of demolishing new constructions in the areas where they are located.
Within this framework in mind, questioning whether industrial heritage buildings and the same structural shells can be adapted to a current spatial program and organization has formed the research problem of the study. The aim of this study is to examine the approach applied for the sample within the scope of the original project of the building and the restoration project for the adaptive reuse of idle industrial buildings as mixed-use recreational urban spaces. In the restoration process in question, the nature of the interventions and spatial transformations made to the “shell” structures within the scope of adaptation to possible new functions constituted the primary discussion. Examining the potentials and limitations of the buildings, which are examples of an urban park application in which a mixed-use strategy is adopted, in the context of the city constituted the secondary discussion.
In the study, Donatım Park buildings, which were established as Agricultural Tools and Machinery Factory in Sakarya in 1944, whose production was stopped after the 1999 Marmara Earthquake, but which were not demolished during the extensive demolition work because they preserved their structural features, were selected as a recreation area today. The buildings registered by the Kocaeli Cultural Heritage Preservation Regional Board have been restored in accordance with the urban park area function, and new program proposals have been developed for this concept, apart from the buildings protected within the campus. In the study method flow, 7 proprietary sample buildings were selected, where the refunctioning criteria could be clearly tested, and the spatial characteristics of these structures. The original design is discussed in the context of life cycles, which includes the stages of use, change, temporary use and reuse. In the second stage, the Content Analysis method was used to test the applicability of the texts of the pioneering regulations published in the field of conservation, which offer certain classifications, in the sample area in order to evaluate the spatial interventions in the reused buildings, and it was observed that the objectives that should be determined in international standards on industrial heritage were concentrated under seven headings: ( i) The space itself, (ii) The texture of the space, (iii) The layout of the space, (iv) The use of the space, (v) The connotations/meanings of the space, (vi) The records of the space, (vii) Places/Objects. As a result of the interpretation of these titles and the relevant regulation explanations, 7 refunctioning criteria were determined by inference, and each of the sample structures was tried to be evaluated in terms of formal and experiential effects on the determined criteria and contemporary daily life practices.
The method-specific analysis types developed in the article throughout the research are systematic literature research (primary/secondary source and project records from architectural websites), archive scanning (written/visual data from the relevant municipalities about the sample area), site/site visit and research (on-site observation, photography). and documentation), the analysis of the industrial transformation project (based on re-functionality criteria, starting from the lead bylaws). In relation to the different written/visual data types obtained during the analysis, 7 refunctioning criteria were determined. It has been tried to determine to what extent the 7 registered structures studied within the scope of the sample area meet these criteria. In this determination, triple variables rated from high agreement to low agreement and expressed as “appropriate”, “partially appropriate”, “not suitable” were used.
Within the scope of the study findings, it is seen that heritage structures are considered as a “shell” in the adaptive reuse approach, where certain internal transformations are experienced for the interventions required by new and different programs. Therefore, it can be said that an understanding reduced to formality has been adopted in the evaluation of industrial heritage. At this point, although the Sakarya Donatım Park transformation project cannot find an answer as an accepted practice in many aspects in the conservation culture, the structure and transformation process will be examined due to the partial protection of the heritage in the selected area. It has been damaged before (by earthquake) and the building has been re-evaluated in terms of social benefit in the city. Because, rather than the final function of the sample area, it was found worth examining the transformation process and the practical aspects of the interventions.

Keywords: Industrial heritage, adaptive reuse, reuse, Sakarya.

İşlev Dışı Kalan Kent İçi Endüstriyel Miras Alanlarının Uyarlanabilir Yeniden Kullanım Açısından Değerlendirilmesi: Sakarya Donatım Park Örneği

Melike Nur Saraylı1, İsmail Hakkı Demir2
1Eskişehir Osman Gazi Üniversitesi Mimarlık ve Tasarım Fakültesi, Mimarlık Anabilim Dalı, Eskişehir, Türkiye
2Sakarya Üniversitesi Sanat Tasarım ve Mimarlık Fakültesi, Mimarlık Bölümü, Sakarya, Türkiye

Göçebe yaşantıdan tarım uygarlığına geçiş aşamasından sonra toplumların yaşam ve kültürlerinde köklü bir değişim etkisi olan Endüstri Devrimi döneminin üretim yerleşkeleri, iki asrı aşkın süredir kentsel yapılaşmada belirgin değişikliklerin kaynağı olmuşlardır. Geçtiğimiz yüzyılda yeniliğin ve gelişimin sembolü olarak görülen, günümüzde orijinal işlevlerini yitirdikleri için terk edilmiş bu yapıların, yıkılarak ortadan kaldırılmaları yerine, “Uyarlanabilir Yeniden Kullanım” yaklaşımıyla kültürel miras olarak değerlendirilmeleri uygulamasına gidilmektedir. Çalışmada, 1944 yılında Sakarya’da Ziraat Aletleri ve Makineleri Fabrikası olarak kurulan ve 1999 Marmara Depremi sonrası tasfiye sürecinde üretimi durdurulan, ancak yapısal özelliklerini korudukları için yıkılmayıp, günümüzde Donatım Park adıyla rekreasyon alanına dönüştürülen eski fabrika sahasındaki yapılar seçilmiştir. Kocaeli Kültür Varlıklarını Koruma Bölge Kurulu’nca tescil edilen yapılar, rekreasyon alanı fonksiyonuna uygun olarak restore edilmiş, bu yapılar dışında bu konsepte yönelik yeni programlar da uygulanmıştır. Çalışma yönteminde, yeniden işlevlendirme kriterlerinin sınanabildiği 7 adet tescilli örneklem yapı seçilmiş, bu yapıların mekânsal özellikleri, orijinal tasarım, kullanım, değişim, geçici kullanım ve yeniden işlevlendirme aşamalarını içeren yaşam döngüleri bağlamında ele alınmıştır. İkinci aşamada, bu yapılardaki mekânsal müdahalelere ilişkin, koruma alanında yayımlanmış öncü tüzüklerin ilgili metinlerinin örneklem alan içerisindeki uygulanabilirlikleri, İçerik Analiz (Content Analysis) yöntemiyle sınanmış, endüstri mirası konusunda uluslararası standartlarda belirlenebilecek hedeflerin yedi başlık altında yoğunlaştığı tespit edilmiştir: (i) Mekânın kendisi, (ii) Mekânın dokusu, (iii) Mekânın yerleşimi, (iv) Mekânın kullanımı, (v) Mekânın çağrışımları/anlamları, (vi) Mekânın kayıtları, (vii) Yerler/Nesneler. Bu başlıklar ve ilgili tüzük açıklamalardan çıkarsama yoluyla 7 adet yeniden işlevlendirme kriteri saptanmış, örneklem yapıların herbiri, belirlenen kriterlere ve çağdaş gündelik yaşam pratiklerine yönelik formel ve deneyimsel etkiler açısından değerlendirilmeye çalışılmıştır.

Anahtar Kelimeler: Endüstri mirası, uyarlanabilir yeniden kullanım, yeniden işlevlendirme, Sakarya.

Melike Nur Saraylı, İsmail Hakkı Demir. Evaluation of Out-Of-Function Urban Industrial Heritage Areas in Terms of Adaptive Reuse: The Case of Sakarya Donatim Park. Tasarım Kuram. 2022; 18(37): 152-170

Corresponding Author: Melike Nur Saraylı, Türkiye
Manuscript Language: Turkish
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