ISSN: 1302-2636 | E-ISSN: 2757-668X
Journal of Design+Theory - Tasarım Kuram: 17 (34)
Volume: 17  Issue: 34 - 2021
1.Frontmatters

Pages I - VI

RESEARCH
2.Tame Modernism: The Manifestos of Sedad Hakkı Eldem and Orhan Veli Kanik
Efe Duyan
doi: 10.14744/tasarimkuram.2021.53244  Pages 1 - 13
Erken Cumhuriyet döneminin en dikkat çekici manifestolarından Sedad Hakkı Eldem’in Yerli Bir Mimariye Doğru makalesiyle Orhan Veli Kanık’ın Garip Antolojisi Önsözü, koşutlukları kadar farklılıklarıyla da 1930’ların sonunda Türkiye’de gözlemlenen kültürel dönüşümün söylemsel odak noktalarını oluştururlar.
1929 uluslararası ekonomik krizi sonrasında dünya çapında içe kapalı ekonomilerin ve milliyetçi eğilimlerin güçlenmesi, kültürel ağırlık noktasının uluslararası ve yenilikçi sanat anlayışından içe dönük ve halka hitap etmeyi amaçlayan bir eksene kaymasına yol açmıştı. Özellikle Weimar Cumhuriyeti, Sovyetler Birliği ve Türkiye gibi Birinci Dünya Savaşı’ndan sonra devrimci süreçler sonunda kurulan ülkeler bu süreci keskin bir şekilde yaşadılar. Türkiye’nin kültürel coğrafyası, Nazi Almanyası’nın ayrımcı veya Sovyetler Birliği’nin denetimci aşırı uçlarını deneyimlememişse de, devletçilikle restore edilmiş erken Cumhuriyet siyasetinin eşlik ettiği halkçı sanat anlayışı öne çıkmıştı.
Eldem ve Veli’nin manifestoları rejimin geçirdiği restorasyona koşut yeni bir sanat dilinin temellerini atmaya çalışırken odak noktalarına sanatın toplumsal rolünü, toplumsal kimlik arayışını ve biçimsel sadeliği alırlar.
Manifestolar, hızla modernize edilmiş kültür ortamında, sanatın toplumsal dönüşümün parçası olması gerektiğini öne sürerler. Sanatın toplumsal yönelimlerin simgesi ve yeniden üreticisi olması gerektiğini belirtseler de farklı toplumsal kitleleri hedefleyerek görece farklı ideolojik konumlarını ortaya sererler. Eldem, kendine has özelliklerini vurguladığı millet kavramını gündeme alırken, Veli çıkarları yönetici sınıflarla örtüşmeyen işçi sınıfını odağına alır. Eldem, yabancıların kültürel etkilerini milletin kavrayışına dışsal kalmakla eleştirerek milliliğin bir türevi olarak yerellik kavramına vurgu yaparken; Veli, zamanının edebiyatını üst sınıflara hitap ettiğini belirterek geniş kitlelerin beğenisini arar. Yine de, hem Eldem’in milliyetçi-yerelci doğrultusu hem de Veli’nin sınıfsal-halkçı bakışı yeni kültürün toplumsal gereksinimlere denk düşmesini savunarak koşut modernist yaklaşımlara ulaşırlar. İki metin de Erken Cumhuriyet’in Jacoben söylemini benimser ve bir restorasyon gereksinimini imleyerek özneyle kitleler arasındaki uçurumun kapanmasını umarlar. Toplumun geniş yığınlarını, Cumhuriyet’in dönüşüm sürecini onarmak için tetikleyici unsur olarak tanımlarlar. İçe dönük ekonomi politikaları ve müdahaleci devletçilik döneminde, benzerlikleri altyapısal ilişkilerin üstyapıyla ilişkilendirilmesi bağlamında sanatın siyasi rolünü vurgularken, farklılıkları dönemin kültürel dönüşüm yelpazesinin farklı uçlarını temsil eder.
Metinler, ideolojik bir refleks olarak dengeli bir kültürel dönüşümün somut yanıtını kimlik sorunsalında arar. Sedad Eldem’in kimlik anlayışı yekparedir, intizamı sağlamak için farklılıkları saf dışı bırakmayı ön görür. Orhan Veli, daha eleştirel bir yaklaşımı benimsemiştir; şiirin altyapısal düzenlemelere ve merkezi desteğe daha az gereksinimi vardır. Kültürel gündemlerinin tonunu kimliğin özünü bulma çabası belirlerken, sanatın iletişim yeteneği öne çıkarılır. Topluma ulaşamayan bir sanatın toplumun kimliğini araması gereksiz, hatta imkânsızdır. İletişimsellik yalnızca kitlelere sadakati simgelemez, aynı zamanda siyasi düzlemde sanatsal manevra imkanları sunar. Yine de kültürel kimliğin özü olarak sanatın iletişim yeteneği, Eldem’in ve Veli’nin metinlerinde farklı görüntüler ortaya çıkarır. Eldem açısından yalnızca yerel bir mimari kimlik, dönüşümün ideallerini aktaran bir çarka dönüşebilir. Veli içinse, şiiri gündelik hayata eklemlemenin yegane yolu sıradan bir dil kullanmaktan geçer. Eldem yabancı ve uluslararası eğilimlerle yüzleşirken, Veli tarihsel ve biçimci yaklaşımları eleştirir. Yerellik ve sıradanlık, toplumsal kimliğin özüne inme becerisine sahip sanatsal girişimlerin dengeli bir modernleşme sürecini destekleyebilmesinin ön koşullarıdır.
Metinlerin biçim konusundaki önermeleri, bölgeselcilik-sıradanlık ikiliğinin ideolojik matrisi aracılığıyla oluşturulur. Sedad Hakkı, binaların iç-dış birliğine ve Klasik Osmanlı mirasından ödünç aldığı ahenk fikrine odaklanır. Buna koşut olarak Orhan Veli, anlamın çıplak aktarımını ve sanat yapıtının bütünlüğünü yeni tarzın temel taşları olarak görür. Toplumsal dönüşümün temel ideallerinin başarıyla aktarılmasına izin veren, sadelik ve bütünlüğün bu alaşımıdır. Sadelik yoluyla, süsleme gelenekleriyle deneysellik devre dışı bırakılarak ileti kanalları temizlenir. Bütünlükse, toplumsal dönüşümün yol göstericiliğine merkezi rolü vererek bu boşluğu doldurur.
Eldem ve Veli’nin metinlerinin içe dönük kültürel yaklaşımları uluslararası avangardın ve geleneksel sanatların eksikliklerini kapatmaya çalışır. Osmanlı mimarlık ve şiir mirası, yüzyıllar boyunca eski yönetici sınıfların hegemonyasını yeniden ürettikleri için toplumsal değişime eşlik etmeye uygun değildir. Öte yandan erken dönem yenilikçi girişimler, geniş toplumsal kesimler bir yana, aydınlar için bile dışsal kalmaya mahkumdur. Bu bağlamda, Eldem de Veli de Cumhuriyet devrimlerinin restorasyonu için melez bir söylem belirler: Topluma kök salarak ona sanat yoluyla önderlik etmek. Manifestoları, modernist açılımların radikal uçlarını törpüleyerek kültüre içselleştirilmesini ön görür. Ne ütopik bir geleceğin yepyeni sanatına gözlerini diker, ne de geçmişin denenmiş yollarına dönmeyi tavsiye ederler. Temel önermeleri, toplumsal değişime öncülük edecek kadar maceracı ve yerel kalıpları barındıracak kadar uzlaşmacı bir sanat diline ulaşmaktır.
This study aims at comparing the two most influential manifestos of the early Republican Period in Turkey, Sedad Hakkı Eldem’s Towards A Local Architecture (Yerli Mimarîye Doğru, 1940) and Orhan Veli Kanık’s Foreword to the Strange Anthology (Garip Antolojisi Önsözü, 1941). The texts include several common features along with comparable differences exemplifying the cultural shift in Turkey in the late 1930s. The international economic crises in 1929 triggered a process of enclosed economies and nationalist governments around the world followed by a cultural shift from international avant-garde to an intrinsic populism. Especially the countries founded after the First World War, such as the Weimar Republic, the Soviet Union, and Turkey, experienced the process as a very sharp turn. The discrimination in Nazi Germany and the total control of arts in the Soviet Union were the extremes, which Turkey has not undergone, but the change of focus towards folk culture and popular taste accompanied by intolerant Statist restoration was conspicuous. Eldem and Veli’s manifestos are based on the principal traits of the transformational role of arts, the search for a social self-identity, and the need for communication with the masses. Whereas their ideological attitude toward society’s identity differs, they separately argue that art should be part of the social transformation and modernization. They assert that their respective fields should be suitable for the lifestyle, taste, and the country’s conditions. In terms of style, they argue that a regionalist attitude in architecture and the use of daily language in poetry could facilitate the necessary communication with the masses. The manifestos of Eldem and Veli constitute essential and rare theoretical ventures, which have determined the framework of art in popular opinion for a few decades, while their parallelism exemplifies the outlines of the cultural shift in the 1930s.

3.The Role of the Column in Architectural Design Beyond Being a Structural Component
Aytaç Taşkın, Onur Erman
doi: 10.14744/tasarimkuram.2021.48303  Pages 14 - 32
Canlı veya cansız, bütün varlıklar, fiziksel bütünlüklerini, strüktürel kurguları sayesinde korurlar. Mimaride mekân dâhil olmak üzere bütün unsurlar, strüktürün varlığı sayesinde biçimlenerek, stabil kalıp, kuvvetlere karşı koyabilmektedir. Strüktür olmaksızın yapıyı inşa etmek mümkün değildir. Çalışmada, yapısal anlamda önemli bir role sahip olan kolonun taşıyıcı olmanın ötesinde mimariye etkisi ve katkısı sorgulanmak istenmiştir. Bu doğrultuda, strüktür kavramının gelişimi ve mimariyle arasındaki ilişki irdelenerek, mimaride üç önemli unsur olarak mekân, biçim ve anlamın oluşumu, kolonun mimari tasarımdaki rolüyle ilişkisi bakımından ele alınmıştır. Seçilen örneklerin yorumlanmasıyla ulaşılan sonuçlar kolonun, mimari tasarımın bir parçası olarak kurgulanabildiğini, mekânı, anlamı ve biçimi oluşturmada araç olarak kullanılabildiğini göstermektedir. Kolonun taşıyıcı eleman olmanın ötesine geçerek, mimaride, tasarım ögesi olarak kullanıldığı hatta tasarımın odak noktası haline geldiği görülmüştür.
All beings, living or non-living, maintain their physical integrity through their structural system. Space as an architectural creation, is made possible by the existence of the structure. Thus, the architectural fabric can remain stable and resist forces. It is not possible to construct a building without the structure. Especially since the 20th century, the structure has begun to be considered as an element that enriches the design by getting rid of its function that keeps the building performs it. Thus, with the developments in building construction methods and materials, structure has strengthened its role as an effective design element in architecture.
Columns are structural elements that transfer the loads acting on the structure vertically within the structure. In this study, it was desired to question the effect and contribution of the column, which has an important structural role, to the architecture beyond being a carrier. In this context, the development of the concept of structure and its relationship with architecture are examined, and the formation of space, form and meaning as three important elements in architecture are discussed in terms of its relationship with the role of the column in architectural design. Within the scope of the study, 12 buildings were selected, in which the column was used as a design element, and the columns were used in architectural design; their contributions at functional, spatial, formal and semantic levels were evaluated.
In the examples where the relationship of the column with the function is discussed, the tasks they undertake in the architectural space are interpreted within the scope of the purpose of use of the space. Limiting, separating, grouping and defining the areas in the space are found as some of these tasks. With the evaluation of the examples, it has been seen that columns can create a space within the space with their order and the way they come together. Another important finding is that columns have become able to contain space. The massive nature of the column has transformed with technological developments, having a void, and become permeable. In this manner, columns were designed and constructed as elements that conjunct the areas by taking on roles to define the space.
With the aim to understand the effect of the columns in the production of form, the examples where columns are used in architectural design in the production of form are examined. Evaluating the examples, it has been seen that the columns can shape the structure not only functionally, but also with the effects arising from the context. In this context, it was determined that the form of the columns also changed over time. With the recent capabilities, columns can be arranged with void, angled or segmented. Developments in the carrier properties of the column with technological abilities, supported to create new construction forms. It is also found that, the order of the spatial elements in which the column comes together, determines the form.
In the examples where the relationship with meaning is discussed, the semantic situations that emerge with the way the columns come together with the other elements in the structure, existence and coexistence are interpreted. Due to the subjective and variable nature of the meaning, the interpretations of the selected building’s architects and the relevant researchers were taken into consideration in the selected examples. Thus, the interpretations were compared and the semantic states produced by the columns in the structures were revealed. In this context, it has been seen that the forms of the columns, as well as the additions and voids in their physical integrity, have an effect on the meaning. Furthermore it is seen that effects of light and shadow interacting with the columns, the form features (color, texture, material, geometry, etc.) also change the formation of meaning. The column is become an instrument in associating the architectural structure with its context and function and supports the meanings to be formed in this direction.
The obtained results reveal that the column can be used as a part of the architectural design and used as an effective design element to create the space, meaning and form. Consequently, it has been seen that the column goes beyond being a carrier element, and is used as a design element in architecture, and even becomes the focal point of the design.
An important point that needed to be emphasized considering the findings is the contribution of structural systems to architecture would be raise by diversifying thanks to the engineering knowledge, production, and construction methods developed. In particular, the collective efforts of architects and designers, together with experts in the field of engineering, will support developments in the impact of structural elements on architecture.

RESEARCH (THESIS)
4.Structure-Function-Environment Harmony in the Conservation Process of MadrasahBuildings: The Example of Kepenekci Sinan Madrasa
Gülferah Örs Çorapçıoğlu, Sabri Şakı
doi: 10.14744/tasarimkuram.2021.54366  Pages 33 - 49
Osmanlı Dönemi eğitim kurumları olan medreseler; anıtsal yapıları ve tarihi kimlikleri ile korunması gerekli ancak günümüzde özgün işlevini sürdüremeyen kültür varlıklarıdır. Yapıların günümüze ulaşmış örnekleri incelendiğinde, işlev değişiminden veya işlevsiz durumda bulunmalarından kaynaklanan tahribatların ortaya çıktığı, bunun yanı sıra çevresel doku bozulmaları nedeniyle içe dönük, yaşamayan mekânlara dönüşerek yıpranma süreçlerinin hızlandığı görülmektedir. Bu çalışma, günümüzde özgün işlevini sürdüremeyerek yeni işlevlerle kullanılmakta olan medrese yapılarındaki koruma sorunlarını ortaya koymak ve yeniden işlevlendirme sürecinin mevcut mekânsal özellikler ve çevre verileri doğrultusunda değerlendirilmesinin önem ve gerekliliğini vurgulamak amacıyla yapılmıştır. Medrese yapılarının tarihsel süreçteki mimari ve kurumsal yapılarına ilişkin bilgilerin aktarıldığı çalışmada; işlev değişimine bağlı ortaya çıkan sorunlara farklı örneklerle işaret edilirken, medreselerdeki koruma sorunlarına örnek oluşturan, kentin önemli bir noktasında bulunmasına karşın işlevsiz ve harap durumda olan “Kepenekçi Sinan Medresesi” detaylı olarak ele alınmıştır. Yapı, İstanbul, Fatih İlçesinde, 1985 yılında UNESCO dünya kültür mirası listesine alınmış olan Süleymaniye Camii ve çevresi koruma alanı sınırları içerisindedir. Ayrıca Medresenin bulunduğu Demirtaş mahallesi 2006/10501 sayılı Bakanlar Kurulu kararı ile yenileme alanı ilan edilen sınırlar içinde yer almaktadır. Yapının, Vakıflar Genel Müdürlüğü arşivinden ulaşılabilen 2008 yılına ait rölöve-restitüsyon çalışması mevcut olup, içinde bulunduğu önemli konumun yanı sıra, harap durumu nedeniyle de korumada öncelikli olarak ele alınması gerekli bir kültür varlığı olarak önem taşımaktadır. Çalışma kapsamında yapının tarihsel gelişimi aktarılmış, çalışmanın amacı gereği yapının özgün karakteristikleriyle korunarak sürdürülmesine yönelik yeni işlev önerisi geliştirilmiştir. Bu doğrultuda, yapı ve çevresiyle ilgili detaylı mevcut durum analizi yapılmıştır. Yapısal ve çevresel verilerin olumlu ve olumsuz yönlerinin değerlendirildiği analiz çalışması sonuçlarına ve mevcut restitüsyon etüdüne bağlı olarak yeni işlev önerisi geliştirilmiştir.
Madrasas, which are educational institutions of the Ottoman Period; are cultural assets that need to be protected with their monumental structures and historical identities. However they cannot maintain their original function, and damages due to functional changes or lack of maintenance are observed in the buildings that have survived to the present day. Madrasas consist of units such as the classroom, student rooms, semi-open space, porches, portal, tomb, and fountain, generally around a courtyard, where mass education is given. They are also planned to meet the accommodation needs of students. Madrasa is an educational institution that takes its name from the root “derese”, which, in Arabic, means the place where lessons are taught. A madrasa is where secondary and higher education is held, where the administrators are called mudarris, the teachers who teach lessons are called muids, and the diploma received is called “icazet”. Although the exact date of the madrasas are not known, IX. The Nishapur Madrasa is mentioned as a name in the 16th century, its official establishment by the state is dated to the Karakhanid Period in the X. century, and it is stated that its institutionalization took place in the Seljuk Period.
This study is conducted in order to reveal the conservation problems in madrasas that are being used with new functions. “Kepenekçi Sinan Madrasa”, which is currently not in-use is located within the borders of Süleymaniye Mosque and its surrounding World Heritage Site. In addition, Demirtaş neighborhood which comprises Kepenekçi Sinan Madrasa was declared as a renewal area in 2006. The building has survey and reconstitution drawings from the year 2008. The historical development of Kepenekçi Sinan Madrasa located in Istanbul, Fatih District has been researched and its current situation has been determined. In the chronological table of Zeynep Ahunbay’s research on Architect Sinan’s Educational Buildings, it is listed as “Mimar Sinan madrasas - 1545/46 Kepenekçi Hoca Sinan Madrasa”. The following restoration techniques are recommended in order to keep the madrasa structure alive; removal of unqualified joints (liberation), completion of missing parts (reintegration), elimination of carrier system and material damage (consolidation). However, the most suitable options should be determined by conducting studies with the analyzes and detailed researches by the experts of the relevant disciplines. Within the scope of the study a new function was proposed to preserve and maintain the building with its authentic characteristics. The existing environmental texture of the building and the spaces forming the plan scheme based on the restitution study were evaluated by considering the re-functioning (renovation) process as required by the scope.
To this end, detailed analysis of the current situation for the building and its surroundings has been made. The new function proposal has been developed based on the results of the analysis in which the positive and negative aspects of the structural and environmental conditions are evaluated. The historical and cultural value of the area according to its environmental characteristics, the knowledge of the existence of craft workshops in the past, its proximity to educational institutions, the potential for tourism, the possibilities that it can provide by being located at a central point and on the trade axis have been taken into account in the new function. According to the architectural features, the original function of the building, the fact that it has a plan scheme with a courtyard that can gather the units and can also provide an activity area, the relationship of the spaces with each other, the fact that all units have natural light and ventilation have created data to determine the new function. The small number and size of the units that make up the madrasa required that the users and additional equipment be limited in the new function to be given. Suggested new function has been determined as a “Traditional Handicrafts Center” for educational purposes, where the exhibition and sale of the produced works is also possible. The historical context of the region, the location of the building, its original function and spatial characteristics have been the guide in the new function proposal. In order to improve the position of the building isolated from its urban context, it is suggested that the surrounding texture be cleared of unqualified structures, and a guiding pedestrian axis should be created between the Süleymaniye Complex and Kepenekçi Sinan Madrasa by preventing the traffic flow. Considering the dilapidated condition of the building, it is seen that it is urgent and important to repair the madrasa building, in line with a comprehensive renovation project to be prepared based on the current restitution study.

RESEARCH
5.Evaluation of the Working Areas of Nurses in Terms of Spatial Satisfaction
Çiğdem Çetin, Gülnur Ballice, Zeynep Tuna Ultav
doi: 10.14744/tasarimkuram.2021.96158  Pages 50 - 66
Bu çalışmanın amacı, hemşire çalışma alanlarındaki mekânsal memnuniyeti psikososyal beklentiler üzerinden değerlendirmektir. Bu amaca yönelik, çalışma kapsamında iki ayrı sorgulama yapılacaktır: Hemşirelere ait bireysel parametrelerin çalışma mekânlarındaki psikososyal gereksinimleri üzerinde anlamlı bir etki oluşturup oluşturmadığı ve psikososyal gereksinimlerin hemşireler tarafından çalışma mekânlarında yeterli görülüp görülmediği sorgulanmıştır.
Sağlık çalışanlarından hemşireleri ele alan bu çalışmada, hemşirelerin çalışma mekânlarındaki mekânsal memnuniyetlerini etkileyen faktörler; bireysel ve mekânsal olarak iki ayrı grupta değerlendirilmektedir. Bu çalışmada bireyden kaynaklanan veriler; yaş, cinsiyet, belirlenen hastanede çalışma süresi ve çalışanın engel durumu başlıkları altında öznel olarak değerlendirilebilecek ölçütler olarak belirlenmiştir. Mekânsal memnuniyeti etkileyen mekândan kaynaklanan etkenler ise fiziksel ve psikososyal etkenler olarak iki grupta değerlendirilmektedir. Fiziksel etkenler; renk, malzeme, doku, mobilya düzeni, akustik, havalandırma, koku, ısı vb. iken; psikososyal etkenler, aidiyet, mahremiyet, kontrol etme arzusu, güvenlik, bireysel mesafelere saygı (sınır) olarak düşünülmüştür.
Araştırmada dört farklı veri toplama yöntemi kullanılmıştır: Literatür verileri ve araştırmacıların yapmış oldukları gözlemlerin yanı sıra, yapılan anket ve mülakat çalışmalarından elde edilen veriler çalışmanın bulgularını oluşturmaktadır. Araştırmada elde edilen bulgular; mekânların doğru analiz edilebilmesi amacıyla iki hastane hemşireleri için ayrı ayrı ele alınmıştır. Araştırmanın evrenini; İzmir ili çevresinde yer alan Çeşme Devlet Hastanesi (ÇDH) ve Urla Devlet Hastanesinde (UDH) çalışan hemşireler oluşturmaktadır.
Hemşirelerin çalışma alanlarında psikososyal gereksinimleri karşılamaya yönelik mekânsal verilerin yeterliliği incelendiğinde; doğal ve yapay ışık, gürültü ve koku kontrolü, güvenlik, aidiyet, sınır ve mahremiyet konularında önemli eksiklikler olduğu görülmüştür. Bu olumsuzlukların giderilmesi için sağlık çalışanlarına yönelik iç mekânlarda detaylı çalışmalar yapılmasının öncelikle insan hakları ve çalışan haklarının korunması, sonrasında hastaya karşı olan hoşgörü ve iyi iş gücü anlamında iş performanslarının artması, strese, güvenlik ihlaline ve yorgunluğa bağlı iş kazalarının azalması ve dolayısıyla sağlık hizmetlerinin veriminin artması için son derece önem taşıdığı anlaşılmaktadır.
Physical factors of the space consist of more subjective and measurable elements. Visual, dimensional, tactile, thermal, olfactory and auditory data that appeal to all sensory pathways are among the constituents of physical existence of an individual. The dimensions, form, vertical and horizontal elements of the space, its color, texture and material features, and the perception it creates with stimuli such as sound and smell are the spatial dimension of physical satisfaction (Bayızıtlıoğlu, 2009; Saegert, 2004). The aim of this study is to evaluate the spatial satisfaction in nurse working areas through psychosocial expectations. For this purpose, two separate inquiries were made within the scope of the study: It was questioned whether the individual parameters of nurses had a significant effect on the psychosocial needs in the workplaces and whether the psychosocial needs were seen as sufficient by the nurses in the workplaces.
It is noteworthy that there are very few studies evaluating the satisfaction of nurses, whose spatial satisfaction is directly or indirectly affected. Some of the reasons for this can be listed as follows: Failure to create sufficient training and awareness in this regard, not allocating the budget to meet the spatial needs of nurses, patient-priority perspective, insufficient space allocated for nurses in health interiors, insufficient standards for these spaces in the regulations, and interior design decisions to be regarded as secondary importance.
For all these reasons mentioned above, nurse working places do not have spatial data to meet the psychosocial expectations of nurses and to ensure their spatial satisfaction in this context. Spatial satisfaction, in general terms, is that an individual feels good in the place he/she is in, with the data originating from the place. In terms of healthcare spaces and healthcare professionals, it provides spatial satisfaction by reducing the factors that affect healthcare professionals negatively and increasing the positive spatial factors with indoor design parameters and supporting their satisfaction in the space (Tanrıöver, 2016).
In this study, which deals with nurses from healthcare professionals, the factors affecting the spatial satisfaction of nurses in their workplaces, it is evaluated in two separate groups, individually and spatially. In addition to the person’s physiological characteristics, gender and age, depending on the social class and the education he/she has acquired, the culture, habits and past experiences, and the temporal characteristics such as his/her feelings in the place at that moment, purpose, wishes and point of view constitute individual data (Tavakkoli, 2014). Data originating from the individual in this study; age, gender, duration of working in the specified hospital and disability of the employee were determined as criteria that can be evaluated subjectively. Space-related factors affecting spatial satisfaction are evaluated in two groups as physical and psychosocial factors. Physical factors; color, material, texture, furniture layout, acoustics, ventilation, odor, heat, etc. while psychosocial factors are considered as belonging, privacy, desire to control, security, respect for individual distances (border).
Four different data collection methods were used in the study: In addition to the literature data and the observations made by the researchers, the data obtained from the survey and interview studies constitute the findings of the study. The findings of the research were considered separately for the two hospital nurses in order to analyze the interior spaces correctly. The universe of the research includes nurses working at Çeşme State Hospital (ÇDH) and Urla State Hospital (UDH), which are located around İzmir province.
When examining the adequacy of spatial data to meet the psychosocial needs of nurses in their working areas, it has been observed that there are significant deficiencies in natural and artificial light, noise and odor control, security, belonging, border and privacy. It is understood that in order to eliminate these inadequate circumstances, carrying out detailed studies for healthcare professionals indoors, first of all, to protect human rights and employee rights, then to increase work performance in terms of tolerance and a good workforce to the patient, to decrease occupational accidents due to stress, violation of safety and fatigue and thus to increase the efficiency of health services are extremely important.

6.A Contribution to the Development of Awareness on Conservation in Interior Architecture Education: Graduation Project Case
Selin Üst, Ayşe Ceren Güler
doi: 10.14744/tasarimkuram.2021.67044  Pages 67 - 83
İç mimarların temel çalışma alanlarından birini de inşa edildikleri dönemdeki işlevlerini yitirmiş yapıların yeni kullanım koşulları ve gereksinimleri doğrultusunda yeniden işlevlendirilmesi oluşturmaktadır. Yeniden işlevlendirilen yapılar yakın zamanda inşa edilmiş yeni yapılar olabildiği gibi işlevini yitirmiş ancak korunması gerekli kültür varlığı yapılar da olabilmektedir. Kültür varlıklarının korunabilmesi ve gelecek nesillere ulaştırılabilmesi ancak bu konuda bir hassasiyetin geliştirilmesiyle sağlanabilir. Tasarım alanında çalışan tüm meslek grupları gibi iç mimarların da kültür varlıklarının korunması konusunda farkındalıkları yüksek olmalıdır. İç mimarların koruma bilinci konusunda kendilerini geliştirmelerinde en önemli basamak lisans eğitimidir.
Çalışma kapsamında; Özyeğin Üniversitesi, Mimarlık ve Tasarım Fakültesi, İç Mimarlık ve Çevre Tasarımı Bölümü’nde 2019-2020 bahar yarıyılında gerçekleştirilen Mezuniyet Projesi incelenmiş, öğrencilerin tarihi bir yapı için yeniden işlevlendirme önerileri üzerinden koruma bilinci ve eğitim ilişkisi değerlendirilmiştir. Öğrencilerin lisans eğitim programlarında zorunlu ve seçmeli olarak yer alan tarihi yapıların korunmasına yönelik derslerde edindikleri bilgi birikimlerini, tarihi bir yapı ile karşı karşıya kaldıklarında pratiğe aktarabilme becerileri sorgulanmıştır.
Öğrencilerin yaklaşımlarını analitik bir şekilde değerlendirebilmek adına; teslim edilen projeler tarihi yapıyla kurulan ilişkide olması gereken hassasiyetler ve kriterler üzerinden tanımlanan dört farklı seviyeye göre analiz edilmiştir. Proje analiz çalışmalarının yanı sıra derse kayıtlı olan öğrencilerden dönem sonunda mezuniyet stüdyosu deneyimlerini değerlendirdikleri bir metin yazmaları istenmiştir. Toplanan metinler önce kullanım sıklıklarına göre etiket bulutu (tag cloud) ile incelenmiş, ardından iki farklı araştırmacı tarafından ana olguların belirlendiği içerik analizi çalışması yürütülmüştür.
One of the main interest areas of interior architects is the adaptation of buildings which have lost their authentic functions that they were built for, to new uses, conditions and requirements. These buildings may not be only the new ones but also the historic buildings that are listed as a cultural heritage and have to be preserved. Conservation of cultural heritage and transmitting it to the future generations can only be achieved by raising sensitivity to this value. Therefore, interior architects should enhance their awareness of the conservation of cultural heritage just like all members and groups working in the field of architectural design. It is certain that undergraduate education is one of the most important steps in the development of interior architects’ awareness of conservation.
The present study aims to discuss the importance of developing an understanding of conservation in interior architecture education. Firstly, Ozyegin University, Faculty of Architecture and Design, Department of Interior Architecture and Environmental Design undergraduate curriculum was examined to figure out the percentage of theoretical conservation courses in interior design education. This evaluation brought to mind the question if the theoretical knowledge has been reflected in practice or not. Because the graduation studio is the last step before entering professional life, students are expected to demonstrate their skills in interior design by integrating their knowledge from the undergraduate programme. In the view of conservation awareness; the students have to apply their knowledge of conservation that they have learnt throughout the theoretical courses and apply such knowledge in their projects. Therefore, the student works of 2019-2020 Spring Semester Interior Architecture Graduation Studio in which students were expected to create adaptive reuse proposals for a historic building- Paşalimanı Flour Factory- have been evaluated through the relationship between the awareness of conversation and the interior architecture education. With the resources directed about the subject and seminar series and technical trips organized throughout the term, it is aimed that the students would perceive the historical texture in which the historic building is located better, become aware of the unique and need to be protected values of the environment, and enrich their perspectives in order to emphasize these values in their design they would develop.
Within the scope of the study, student projects submitted at the end of the semester were examined in terms of the differences in the approach to the historic building and the priorities for preservation. In order to evaluate students’ approaches analytically, the projects were analyzed according to the four different levels defined on the criterion that should be in relation with the historic monument. The extent to which the design proposals made by the students met the criterion was analyzed through the scoring system. In addition to this, at the end of the semester the students who enrolled in the graduation studio were asked to write texts in which they evaluated their studio experiences. The collected texts were first examined for the frequency of the words used via a cloud analysis, and then a content analysis study was conducted by two independent researchers to discover the concepts and relations. In addition to the observations made throughout the term, these analytical analyses based on the projects and collected texts at the end of the term provided important and comparable data for the study.
In conclusion, the common tendencies and different approaches of the students to the historic monument were revealed according to the assessments. Although all of the students have developed a sensitivity for conservation, most of them mentioned the difficulties in transferring the theoretical knowledge of conservation to reuse practice. It is important to support the interior design students not only within the scope of the studio course but throughout their education life in order to increase the awareness of conservation. In this direction, it is necessary to increase students’ awareness on conservation with the help of compulsory and elective courses that can be added to their undergraduate curriculum. In addition, it would be beneficial for students to experience adaptive reuse interior design projects related to a historical building that they may encounter in their professional lives, not only in the graduation studio, but also in the other studio classes before reaching this stage, on different scales and requirements.

7.Establishing Resilient Relationships with Water: A Glance into Professionals' Ecosystem
Ebru Bingöl
doi: 10.14744/tasarimkuram.2021.14880  Pages 84 - 100
Doğal akışlarının bozulduğu günümüz çağında, küresel iklim değişikliği ve küresel kuraklık problemlerinin gündeme gelmesi ile birlikte, su en önemli konulardan birisi olmuştur. Hem doğal hem de kültürel bir olgu olan su, çok boyutlu ve çok katmanlı yapısı gereği birçok farklı disiplin tarafından çalışılmaktadır. Su, farklı coğrafyalardaki durumların, farklı disipliner yaklaşımların, farklı anlayışların arasında bir köprü kurmak için benzersiz olanaklar sunmaktadır. Ancak bu çok disiplinli yaklaşım bir potansiyel olmak yerine, sıklıkla, problemin değerlendirilmesinde ve çözüm oluşturulması aşamasında disipliner sınırlara hapsolmaktadır. Bu çalışma, su üzerine çalışan farklı profesyonellerle yapılan mülakatları içermektedir. Bu mülakatlar, insan-su ilişkisinin diyalektiğini, problem-potansiyel-çözüm üzerine sunulan bakış açılarını ve su sorunlarının çözümüne yönelik bilimsel, fiziksel ve eylemsel yöntem ve araçları, kısaca profesyonellerinin ekosistemini bir arada sunmaktır. Böylece, disiplinler-ötesi bir bakış açısı ile su meselesine bütüncül bir perspektiften bakmanın ve ortak çözümler üretmenin yollarını aramayı hedeflemektedir. Çalışma, şu soruların yanıtlarını aramaktadır. Su üzerine çalışmalar yapan profesyoneller, disipliner sınırlar olmadan nasıl bir ekosistem ortaya koyuyorlar? Bu ekosistemde üretilen fikirler yumağı, modern çağda su ile ilişkimizdeki kopukluklara nasıl çözümler öneriyorlar? Disiplinler ötesi bir bakış açısıyla su problemlerinin çözümü mümkün müdür? Bu sorular, suyla kurduğumuz ilişki üzerine fikir üreterek gezegenle olan ilişkimizi de sürdürülebilir ve dirençli bir şekilde yenilemeye dair ipuçları yakalamaya yöneliktir. Profesyonellerin ekosistemi, Guattari’nin üçlü ekolojisinde olduğu gibi, su ile ilişkimize zihinsel, toplumsal ve çevresel düzeyden bütüncül bir ekolojik perspektiften yaklaşmayı ve çeşitli yöntemler ve araçlar ile çözümler üretmenin yollarına ışık tutmaktadır.
Water, both as a natural and a cultural phenomenon, is studied by various disciplines due to its multi-dimensional and multi-layered structure at the natural and societal levels. Thus, it offers unique opportunities to bridge between different geographies, disciplinary approaches and perspectives. However, instead of understanding this diversity as a potential, water studies are confined into disciplinary boundaries during evaluation of the water-related problems and each discipline seeks solutions within its scope of area of research. On the one hand, as Felix Guattari (1989) claimed that the logic of ecology (namely, relationship) is multi-dimensional.
This study is an outcome of in-depth interviews held with professionals from different disciplines working on water. These interviews present the complex interconnected system of professionals’, in other words ecosystems of professionals, to identify their ecological understanding of the problem-potential-solution towards human-water relationship and their mental-physical-tactical methods against water-related-problems. Thus, this study aims to provide a holistic picture of the human - water dialectic of professionals with a transdisciplinary perspective. The study seeks answers to the following questions: What kind of ecosystem does professionals working on water reveal without disciplinary boundaries? What kind of solutions does this ecosystem offer responding to the disconnections in our relationship with water in the modern era? Rather than an exclusionary perspective, what opportunities does a transdisciplinary perspective provide for a sustainable future?
When the interviews were evaluated, it matches with Guattari’s notion of ecology at three levels: mental, social, and environmental levels. The first group of professionals defined their relationship with water through sensory experiences on an individual basis that should be kept alive through local stories, myths and memories as well as daily routines and rituals. It is similar to Guattari’s mental ecology that refers to phenomenological constructs covering subjective and individual-based relationship with water. The second group of professionals argued that there was a social-political relationship between human and water in the broader urban reality and the main reason behind the recent problems with water was political. In Guattarian term, it is social ecology constructed by as social, ideological and cultural production that is significantly discussed by various critical social theorists.These interviewees suggested that the distrupted relationship can only be the renewed through activism, constructing public opinion, and activity-based reuse to evoke the sense of place. Another group of professionals emphasized the dynamics of water by analyzing and mapping of its nature, to return to the true ecology of water through physical arrangements and design, rather than focusing on who is in charge of disrupting the relationship with water. It matches with Guattari’s environmental ecology that refers to the physical and spatial organizations and processes constructing the relationship. Each ecological level is closely linked, synchronized and juxtaposed with each other.
The professionals ecosystem sheds light on the transdisciplinary relationship with water from a holistic and transdisciplinary ecological perspective (from the mental, societal and environmental level. )A holistic approach to water requires combining different levels of ecology (or type of relationship) at the same time. As Guattari (1992) stated, there can be no change in mentalities without changes in the social and physical environment. Or, if the mental relationship does not reach the social level and not led a physical transformation, it will remain incomplete. Bringing water into daily life practices and routines, becoming a part of urban life at the social level, revitalizing memory, and planning it in such a way to regain its natural flow and ecology will lay the foundations of a sustainable and resilient relationship. A holistic management and planning approach will renew our relationship with water on an individual (subjective), social and physical level and provide clues to renew our relationship with the planet in a sustainable and resilient way.
Considering the limitations of the study, it should be noted that the interviews only reflect the views of a group of professionals.

8.Urban Interior: The Discursive Construction of The Domestication/Interiorization of Publicness
Ecehan Kıvılcım Sözgen
doi: 10.14744/tasarimkuram.2021.43043  Pages 101 - 110
Kentsel mekânda bir şekilde özelleşen ve içselleşen bir mekâna karşılık gelen kentsel iç mekân kavramı, kent mekânında sınırların aşılma şekli ve ilişkilerin devinimselliği ile farklı içeriklerle kavramsal boşluğunu doldurmaya, hatta inşa etmeye çalışır. Kavram, kentsel çevrede “insan”a ve içselleşmiş/evselleşmiş bir yaşama dair arayışlarla karşılıklarını mimari söylemde ve pratikte üretmektedir. Çalışmada, mimarlık disiplininin “kentsel iç mekân” kavramına neden ihtiyaç duyduğunu ve onun içeriğini nasıl doldurduğuna bakmak, tanımlamaya çalışmak ve nasıl işlediğini çözümlemek ana izlektir.
Kavramın farklı disiplinlere girişi ile başlayan günümüze dek süren ve halen devam eden değişiminin izini süren çalışmada, kentsel iç mekânın etimolojik ve kavramsal kökenlerini araştırarak anlamsal dağarcığının ortaya çıkarılması amaçlanır. Bu doğrultuda, kavram arkeolojisi ile “kentsel iç mekân” kavramının ortaya çıkış koşulları, bu koşulların epistemik altyapısı ve bu çeşitlenen altyapının farklı disiplinlerde üretilen söylemsel pratikler ile ilişkisi çözümlenir. Bu hedefte, söylemsel inşa ve onun içinde yer alan tikel söylemler açımlanır.
Bu araştırma ekseni doğrultusunda çalışma, ilk olarak “kentsel iç mekân” kavramının ortaya çıkışına zemin hazırlayan, modernitenin dayattığı modern kent tasarımının “kamusal” içeriğinin değişimini araştırma konusu edinir. Ardından, disiplinler söylemlerin, birbiri ile ilişkili ya da ilişkisiz disiplinlerin, birikimleri ile içeriğini genişleten kavramın kendini söylem formunda gösteren tarihsel izlerini sürer. Böylece, son bölümde, disiplinler arası ödünçlemelerle kentsel iç mekân kavramının işlev, işleyiş ve bağıntıları üzerinden söylemsel inşasını nasıl kurduğunu çözümlemeye çalışır.
The concept of urban interior, which denotes a space within urban space that in some form becomes private and interiorized, attempts to fill or even construct its conceptual void with the different kinds of content based on dynamism of relationships by transcending boundaries in urban space. The concept produces its meanings in architectural discourse and practice through pursuits concerning “the human” and an interiorized/domesticized life in the urban environment. Looking at why the discipline of architecture feels the need for the concept of “urban interior” and how it fleshes out its content, trying to define the concept and analyzing how it functions constitute the main theme of this study.
The study, which traces the evolution of the concept of urban interior which began with its entry into different disciplines and which has been ongoing till today, aims to reveal its semantic repertoire through a research into its etymological and conceptual roots. Accordingly, the conditions of the emergence of the concept of “urban interior”, the epistemic foundation of these conditions and the relationship of this diversified foundation with discursive practices produced in different disciplines are analyzed by the method of “archeology of concept”. To this end, the discursive construct and the particular discourses within are expounded.
In line with this axis of research, the study first picks up the evolution of the “public” content of modern urban design imposed by modernity, which has laid the groundwork for the emergence of the concept of “urban interior”. Next, it traces the historical marks, which show themselves in the form of discourse, of the concept that is expanding its content via the accumulations of related or unrelated disciplines and disciplinary discourses. Thereby, in the final section, it tries to analyze how the concept of urban interior space founds its discursive construction with interdisciplinary borrowings through its functions, operations and connections.
In historical perspective, due to the disconnection of urban space from the relations between the individual and society, modernism, modern urban planning and policies were brought into discussion with the 6th CIAM Congress in 1947. Modern urban space is unsafe and uncanny. Modern human’s inability to feel at home in the relation with the “modern home”, the condition of alienation in Norberg-Schulz, sheds light on the alienation in urban space as well. The modern world is in turn built on this state of alienation; the city is full of aliens.
Is it possible for modern, functional urban space, with its configuration that evades life and human internal experiences, pleasures and desires, with its uncanny space, to be rendered meaningful and for it to retransform into a “place”? What about producing familiarity once again in alienated urban space? “Urban interior” appears as the spatial equivalent to finding “the human” that has been lost in urban space. Departing from the desire to stay home/inside against the uncanny and alien exterior, it is the very urban space itself that is attempted to be rendered safe and reclaimed through domestication.
These discourses, by which the public quality of urban space is questioned through sub-concepts such as definable, livable and safe, have evolved towards discussing urban space in its psychological and perceptual dimensions that produce belonging and familiarity that render it “room-like”, make it behave “home-like” and produce a feeling of “coming home”. On the sociological axis, the diversified spatial productions of urban space, such as urban niche, city lounge, urban surface, the community living room etc., appearing with the metaphor of urban room have been tried to be defined by derived words received from interior design. On the other hand, on a conceptual ground where the distinction between interior and exterior goes beyond physical boundaries, the fact that this act of blurring the interdisciplinary boundary performed by the discipline of urban design has gone beyond the traditional and complementary relationship that the concept of “interior space” (now defined as more than the opposite of exterior space) has formed with other disciplines has enabled a new debate. This rhetorical transformation has produced a hybrid field of application at the intersection of urban design and interior architecture.
Different disciplines construct the content of the concept of “urban interior” differently and with their definitions that sever the concept of space from physicality and that discuss interiority beyond boundaries, base their discourses on dualities. The concept, which is trying to find its place in various intersections by means of dualities such as interior/exterior, individual/social, private/public, formal/informal, temporary/permanent and physical/perceptual in order to transcend conceptual boundaries, necessitates breaking the traditional relations between these structures of duality. Therefore, the importance for future studies of a polylectic conceptualization which pushes for rediscussing the vague meanings, boundaries, premises and operation of the concept is evident.

CASE REPORT
9.Architectural Historical Semantic: The Neoliberal Capitalism-Driven Transformation of Karatepe Eaves: The Museum Hotel Antakya
Aslı Can
doi: 10.14744/tasarimkuram.2021.50455  Pages 111 - 122
“(Mimarlık) Tarih(i)sel Semantik: Karatepe Saçakları’nın Neoliberal Kapitalizm Güdümlü Dönüşümü: The Museum Hotel Antakya” başlıklı makale, isminde adı geçen iki projenin görsel bir karşılaştırması değildir; bunun yanında, iki yapının müellifleri üzerinden bir “star mimarlık” gündemi yaratmaya da çalışmaz. Elinizdeki çalışma, bir arkitektonik nesne olarak saçağın, takribi 50 yıl içerisinde uğradığı semantik dönüşüm üzerinden, Arolat ya da projenin diğer aktörleri tarafından “icat edilen” Müze-Otel fonksiyonunun, Karatepe’de somutlaşan ve “ikonikleşen” arkeolojik koruma saçaklarının neoliberal kapitalist bir tezahürü olup olmadığını tartışmaya açmayı amaçlar. Yani çalışmanın temelinde yatan karşılaştırma, ikisi de kendi zamansal bağlamlarında “ikonik” olarak kabul edilebilecek bu yapıların, içine doğdukları sosyo-ekonomik arka plandır. Diğer bir deyişle, devlet politikalarının tartışmasız yansımaları olan mimarlık ürünleri ve onları var eden iki özgül dönem, neoliberal kapitalist tandanslar sonucu yaşanan semantik dönüşüm özelinde ortaya çıkan mimari refleksler bağlamında bir değerlendirmeye tabi tutulmak istenmektedir. Özellikle vurgulanmak istenen, mimari refleks benzer olsa dahi 50 yıl içerisinde mimarlığın eklemlendiği mekânsal dönüşümün; saçakların otele çevrilmesinde tezahür ettiği gerçeğidir. Yani 1950’li yılların, saçaklardan oluşan koruma üst örtüsü, 21. yüzyılın başında yerini icat edilmiş bir fonksiyona, bir müze-otele bırakabilmiştir. Mimarlık tarihini nesnelerinin uğradığı anlamsal dönüşümler bağlamında böylesi bir karşılaştırma, meslek literatürü için önemli veriler teşkil edecektir.
The Museum Hotel Antakya, whose project is managed by Emre Arolat Architects and whose design and application have been intertwined both intellectually and operationally since 2009 with its compound functions, the unique value of the Ancient Roman ruins it hosts, and unusual construction methods. It can be subjected to different readings in various plural contexts that can be increased. The meaning of the object can be stratified, deconstructed or studied in the context of semantic transformations by considering it from different angles in numerous articles that can be written on the structure in question. Before the construction is completed; there is no doubt that the hotel, which has been widely discussed in the fields of architecture, archeology, conservation and similar areas, will remain on the agenda for a long time after its opening and use.
The article titled “Architectural Historical Semantic: The Neoliberal Capitalism-Driven Transformation of Karatepe Eaves: The Museum Hotel Antakya” is not a visual comparison of these two projects, neither tries it to create a “starchitectural” narrative by mentioning the two architects of the structures. This very study is a comparison of the projects with their socio-economic background into which these structures, both of which can be considered “iconic” in their own temporal context, were born. In other words, architectural products, which are the indisputable reflections of state policies, and the two specific periods that brought them into existence, are intended to be evaluated within the context of architectural reflexes that emerged with the semantic transformation experienced as a result of neoliberal capitalist tendencies.
The method adopted by the article is chronological. In the study, Karatepe Aslantaş Open-Air Museum, which was built on the background axis of the brutalist architectural products of 1950s Turkey and pronounced as Karatepe Eaves, is introduced as a design object and tried to be understood with its context. Then, before introducing the Museum-Hotel function to the reader, it discusses the reflections of the decisions of January 24, 1980, on architectural production, which brought a total change in Turkey from different perspectives in the early 1980s, which was accepted as the breaking point of the transition to the neoliberal economy and free market that paved the way for its invention. The Museum Hotel Antakya, designed by Emre Arolat Architects; is evaluated in terms of its invented function, context, design criteria, use of materials and features that make it a 21st century architectural icon. The conclusion section, which is designed as an open-ended discussion platform, tries to answer the following question and to put forward various answers and suggestions by problematizing this issue: “Is Eaves’ Architectural Manifestation in the 21st Century a Hotel?”
Emre Arolat’s architectural reflex includes an understanding that reminds a great deal of the sensitivity of the designers of the Karatepe Eaves. The architects of the two projects trace the “place” in their structures. Even the pilot elements, which are the common point of the projects and can allegorically take on the task of decontextualization, yield to the emphasis of the permission, regardless of whether it is elegant or massive. In other words, the context confronts the experiencer as the most important factor affecting the main decisions in both projects. The common point of these two designs, made 50 years apart, undoubtedly stems from the strength of their context. Two clusters of remains were not moved to the museum in line with the opinions of the experts, instead an in-situ conservation approach was adopted. However, 50 years ago, the protection approach of various historical and archaeological remains was a top cover that could not compete with it, today this top cover can easily evolve into a world brand hotel, which is a rent-based product.
The aim of the article is far from criticizing the architectural production of EAA or focusing on a social perspective on the pros and cons of the neoliberal system. What is particularly emphasized is the spatial transformation in which architecture has been articulated in 50 years, even if the architectural reflex is similar; it is the fact that the eaves are manifested in the conversion of the hotel. In other words, the protection top cover of the 1950s, consisting of eaves, was replaced by an invented function, a museum-hotel, at the beginning of the 21st century. Such a comparison in the context of the semantic transformations of architectural history objects will constitute important discussion fields for the literature.

RESEARCH
10.Fire Safety Precautions and Evacuation Simulation in Student Dormitories
Muammer Yaman
doi: 10.14744/tasarimkuram.2021.59023  Pages 123 - 138
Geçmiş dönemlerden günümüze kadar olan süreçte ortaya çıkan öğrenci yurt binası yangınları büyük can ve mal kayıplarına neden olmuştur. Can ve mal kayıplarının azaltılması ve ülkelerin geleceği olarak öğrencilerin en iyi koşullarda güven içinde yaşamalarının sağlanması en temel gerekliliktir. Öğrenci yurt binalarının yangın güvenliğinin oluşturulmasında mevzuat gerekliliklerinin ortaya konulması, aktif ve pasif yangın güvenlik önlemleri ile kayıpların en aza indirilmesi ve güvenli yangın tahliyelerinin sağlanması amaçlanmalıdır. Çalışma kapsamında, öğrenci yurt binalarında yangın güvenlik önlemlerinin oluşturulmasında ülkemiz yangın mevzuatı Binaların Yangından Korunması Hakkında Yönetmelik, BYKHY, ele alınmış ve örneklem çalışma üzerinde pasif yangın güvenlik önlemleri değerlendirmeleri yapılmıştır. Örneklem çalışmaya ait kullanıcı yükü hesaplanmış, BYKHY uygunluk analizleri yapılmış ve mimari proje üzerinde tahliye planı hazırlanmıştır. Örneklem üzerinde ayrıca bina kullanımına ve çıkışların engellenmesi durumuna göre farklı tahliye senaryoları kurgulanarak toplam tahliye süreleri hesaplanmıştır. Tahliye sürelerinin hesaplanmasında Pathfinder bilgisayar simülasyon programı kullanılmıştır. Hükme dayalı bir yangın mevzuatı olan BYKHY esaslarına göre, genel olarak uygun bulunan örneklem öğrenci yurt binasının, tahliye simülasyonları kapsamında elde edilen toplam tahliye sürelerinde problemler oluşturabileceği tespit edilmiştir. Özellikle öğrencilerin yatakhanelerde uykuda bulunmaları halinde (gece kullanım) yangının ortaya çıkması ve çıkışlardan herhangi birinin engellenmesi durumunda tahliye sürelerinin uzaması ciddi problemlere neden olacaktır. Çalışmanın sonucunda, öğrenci yurt binaları çerçevesinde, BYKHY esaslarının projelere özgü performansa dayalı çözümlerle desteklenebileceği, geliştirilebileceği ve revize edilebileceği belirtilmiştir. Yurt binaları tahliyelerinde, senaryolar üzerinden risklerin değerlendirilmesi ve risklere yanıt verebilen, rasyonel ve gerçekçi yangın güvenlik önlemlerinin geliştirilmesi önem taşımaktadır. Öğrenci yurt binası yangınları hafife alınamayacak bir can güvenliği sorunudur; bu bağlamda çözüm önerileri üretilmelidir.
Dormitory buildings are accommodation buildings where students meet their learning, living and resting needs. In order for the students in the dormitory buildings to continue their social and physical activities, it is important to provide the safety of life and property. Beds, cabinets, study units, books, etc. in the dormitory buildings increase the indoor fire load and this situation poses a great threat to the occupants during a possible fire. Elimination of threats and reduction of risks is achieved through the design of buildings with active and passive fire safety precautions.
Fire regulations are shaped according to past fire experiences and are organized as prescriptive approaches and performance-based approaches. In our country, there is Turkey’s Regulation on Fire Protection, TRFP which came into force in 2002 and has survived until today through various revisions. It is clearly stated that the rules contained in the regulation are binding and that their provisions are decisive, except for the qualified building groups (where there are not sufficient provisions in the regulation, in metro, marina, helipad, tunnel, stadium, airport and similar areas of use). In this case, the TRFP which was prepared with a prescriptive approach, limits the use, adoption, and dissemination of performance-based approaches at a certain level. It is important to present the requirements of the TRFP, and to compare the requirements with performance-based approaches in establishing fire safety precautions in dormitory buildings. It is necessary to construct and analyse occupant-based evacuation scenarios, which form the basis of performance-based approaches in dormitory buildings. In addition, it is important to analyse the congestions and crowded masses with all components and to control the fire safety designs.
In this paper, case study was carried out to implement the regulation requirements and to control the evacuation times of occupant-based evacuation scenarios. The dormitory building chosen as a case study has been extensively examined in accordance with the TRFP. In the examinations, compliance analyses were made within the scope of passive fire safety precautions and the design requirements of escape routes were emphasized. The evacuation possibilities of the dormitory building were designed on the architectural project and occupant load calculations throughout the building, and escape routes were defined, and controls were made. In addition, the evacuation scenarios based on the occupant of the dormitory buildings -the situation of the students in the sleeping units and the dining hall- and the fire evacuation process were analysed with a computer simulation program (Pathfinder). The number and capacity of escape routes on the case dormitory building were comparatively analyse according to TRFP, and computer simulation program. Evacuation conditions for dormitory buildings were evaluated based on compliance with the regulation and total evacuation times. It has been concluded that the TRFP, should be supported with performance-based solutions in order to eliminate possible risks within the framework of dormitory buildings.
As a result of the case study, it has been determined that there are only problems regarding the opening direction of the doors and narrowing the escape route within the framework of the TRFP. In occupant-based evacuation scenarios, especially when any of the alternative exit points are blocked (Scenarios A1 and B1), the total evacuation times are considerably longer than the usual evacuation times. This situation revealed that a serious problem may be encountered in the dormitory building fire and that fire risk scenarios in dormitory buildings should be investigated. The TRFP controls the escape numbers and capacities as a prescriptive regulation. However, in the case of the dormitory building, while complying with the regulation in general, serious problems arise especially when the students are asleep and any of the alternative exits are blocked. Building-specific and performance-based approaches need to be developed in solving and eliminating fire safety problems and risks.
As a result of the study, as the future of the countries, students should be provided with the most appropriate conditions to live, accommodation and rest. As the most basic requirement in dormitory buildings, the safety of life and property of students should be provided. It is necessary to update the fire regulations of the country by considering them in this framework, to create performance-based, occupant-based fire safety precautions specific to the architectural project and to provide appropriate evacuation conditions. It is expected that solutions will be produced for all risks that can be defined within the scope of the projects and that risks and threats will be eliminated in this context. Dormitory building fires are a life safety issue that cannot be underestimated; in this context, solutions should be developed.

11.Analysis of Student Cultural and Educational Background in Basic Design Education in Urban Planning: The Case of Suleyman Demirel University
Şirin Gülcen Eren
doi: 10.14744/tasarimkuram.2021.29291  Pages 139 - 159
Bu makalede; şehir planlama temel tasarım eğitiminde öğrenci kimliğinin bileşenlerinden olan kültürel birikimi ve formasyonunun, tasarım odaklı düşünce ve yaratıcı düşünce oluşumuyla ilişkili olduğu ve çeşitli faktörler bazında belirlenebileceği savlanmaktadır. Makalenin amacı, söz konusu faktörleri bir örneklem bazında sorgulamak ve eleştirel bir bakış açısıyla değerlendirmektir. Süleyman Demirel Üniversitesi Şehir ve Bölge Planlama Bölümü temel tasarım dersinin iki müteakip yıl (2018-2019 ve 2019-2020) Güz döneminde anket uygulanmış ve inceleme yapılmıştır. İncelemede, anketten elde edilen kalitatif ve kantitatif veriler yanı sıra; Bahar ve Güz dönemi akademik performansları ve sınıf uygulama gözlemleri karşılaştırmalı analiz girdisi olarak kullanılmıştır. Tasarım odaklı düşünce ve yaratıcı düşünce oluşumu, tasarım muhakemesi ile eğitim metodolojisi, planı ve sürecine etki eden faktörler belirlenerek kategorize edilmiştir.
Araştırmanın evrenini, iki kümede (Grup I ve Grup II) toplam 121 denek oluşturmaktadır. Araştırmadan elde edilen veriler üzerinde istatistiksel analiz olarak sayısal aktarım ve yüzde (%) hesabı yapılmıştır. Bulgulara göre, öğrencilerin eğitim formasyonları homojene yakın ve seçim usulü sayısal ağırlıklıdır. Analitik ve sistematik düşünme becerisi ve görsel sanatlara ilgisi olmadığını belirten ve oyun oynayan öğrenciler; tasarım odaklı düşünce, yaratıcı düşünce ve algı becerisi gelişiminde ve problemin gereği tasarı oluşturmada başarısızdır. Babanın formasyonu da akademik performansta belirleyicidir. Sonuç olarak, öğrencinin kültürel birikimi ve formasyonu temel tasarım eğitim metodolojisi ve eğitim planı tasarımında dikkate alınması gereken bir girdi olarak değerlendirilmelidir.
Basic design education is the basic training provided in the education of professionals whose job will be to design technically sound, liveable spaces and consequently society. This education, founded on knowledge and socio-cultural experience, is of vital importance. It forms the student’s identity and is used at all stages of the profession. However, there are few academic studies that seek to determine the relationship between design education and the students’ previous education, family backgrounds, fields of interest and past experience. In view of this gap in the literature, the present article considers the cultural knowledge and education of basic design students in conjunction with their academic performance and observations of their classes.
The article argues that, in basic design education in urban planning, there is a relationship between the students’ cultural backgrounds and previous education and the development of their design-oriented thinking and creativity, and that this can be demonstrated with reference to various specific factors. The role of students’ identities in the development of their design thinking and creative thinking, and in their academic performance, was examined for a given sample of students with the help of a questionnaire. The findings are discussed from a critical perspective.
The research was conducted in the basic design class of the Urban and Regional Planning Department of Süleyman Demirel University in the Fall semesters of two successive academic years (2018-2019 and 2019-2020). In addition to the quantitative and qualitative data obtained by means of the questionnaire, the academic performances of the students in the Spring and Fall semesters and observations made during the classes were used as inputs to the comparative analysis. The research was designed to evaluate the questionnaire and compare certain findings between academic performance at the end of the first and second semesters. It was supported by a review of the literature.
The research universe consisted of a total of 121 subjects divided into two groups (Group I and Group II). A statistical analysis was conducted of the data obtained by deriving the numbers and calculating the percentages. The students were found to have almost homogeneous educational backgrounds and to have been selected based on mathematics-weighted scores. The responses given to the questionnaire, the academic performances and the observations were identical or compatible for each of the two groups.
A number of factors were identified that affect the development of design thinking and creative thinking, design judgement and the educational methodology, plan and process, and these were adopted as parameters. These factors were categorised as follows: choice of department and the reasons for it; the students’ cultural background; the education of the students and the education and professional profile of their parents, and the development of analytical and critical thinking.
The performance of students in the university entrance examination determines their academic success. For most of the students who were successful at school, the department was their department of choice. However, the fact that these students had chosen the department of their own volition and been accepted into it on the basis of their mathematics-weighted scores in the entrance examination did not mean that they had been able to develop creative thinking. The majority passed the class with a relatively poor performance. Students accepted from higher brackets have some difficulty in understanding or comprehending the subject.
These low levels of perceptions are thought to stem from the orientation of the students, during their secondary education, towards a way of thinking that prioritises test-solving, and from dependency on mobile phones and games. The research does not provide sufficient data to support the view that individuals who receive pre-school education develop creative thinking more easily. The only clear finding is that the students lack imagination. The level of socio-cultural experience of the kind needed to ensure eye-hand-mind coordination in the development of design judgement and visual perception skills is low. This analysis also shows that the father’s training is also a determinant of academic performance.
Students who stated that they did not possess analytical and systematic thinking skills and showing no interest in fine arts or playing games were found to be unsuccessful in developing design and creative thinking and perception skills and in creating designs responsive to the problem set. In consequence, during the course of the education provided, the majority of the students do not acquire the skills required to carry out the five design activities needed for the practice of design, and have no desire to develop a capacity for design judgement.
The conclusion was reached that the cultural and educational backgrounds of students are an input that needs to be taken into account when determining the methodology for basic design education and planning the courses.

12.A Critique on the Spectacular Architecture in Today’s World via Debord’s Theory of the Society of the Spectacle
Gülşah Güleç
doi: 10.14744/tasarimkuram.2021.42713  Pages 160 - 168
Bu makalenin amacı, gösterinin kavramsal çerçevesini ve mimarlık alanı üzerindeki etkisini ortaya koymaktır. Gösteri, Debord’un onu geçtiğimiz yüzyılın toplumunu tanımlamak için kullandığından beri, dikkat çekici ve etkili bir kavram olma özelliğini korumaktadır. Öyle ki, gösteri kavramı ve gösteri toplumu kuramı felsefe, sanat ve sosyoloji gibi alanlarla sınırlı kalmayıp başka birçok toplumsal alanda tartışma konusu olmaktadır. Mimarlık alanında da sıklıkla tartışılan gösteri, gösteri mimarlığı kavramının ortaya çıkmasına neden olmuş; geçtiğimiz yüzyılda olduğu gibi, bu yüzyılda da güncel mimarlık anlayışını oluşturmuştur. Bu nedenle, makalede, bugünün mimarlık dünyasında gösteri ve mimarlığa olan etkileri ele alınmıştır. Gelişmiş bilgisayar teknolojileri ve medya sayesinde gösterinin medyatik, hipnotik, ekstatik, dinamik, atmosferik, fetişistik, eksantrik, fotojenik, ikonik ve egosantrik gibi kavramlarla tanımlandığı ve tartışıldığı anlaşılmıştır. Bu kavramlar, gösteriye ve gösteri mimarlığına yönelik eleştirel bir bakış açısının geliştirilmiş olduğunu ortaya koymaktadır. Eleştiri, gösterinin bugünün dünyasının gerçeği ve başlıca değeri olmasını engelleyememiş olsa da gösterişli bir biçimde tasarlanan ve tüketilmek üzere üretildiği anlaşılan mimarlık ürünlerine eleştirel bakabilmemizi sağlamaktadır. Belki de bu eleştirel bakış açışı, bugünün mimarlığının yanı sıra bugünün toplumunu, kentini ve kültürünü de karakterize eden gösterinin önüne geçilmesine değilse de ehlileştirilmesine yol açacaktır. Gösterinin ehlileştirilmesiyle üretimi ve tüketimi arttırmak yerine bu ikisi arasındaki ilişkileri yeniden düzenleyerek dengede tutmak mümkün olacaktır. Böylece toplumsal bir üretim alanı olan mimarlıkta bireysel hırslardan ve aşırıya kaçmış tüketim alışkanlıklarından uzaklaşılacak; gösteri(ş) yapmak değil topluma yarar sağlamak mimarlığın önceliği olarak görülmeye başlayacaktır.
Spectacle is still a challenging concept since it is used by Debord to define and discuss the status of the society in the 20th century. As such, the concept of spectacle is discussed in many other social disciplines as the disciplines of philosophy, art and sociology. It is also discussed in the discipline of architecture in such a way that the concept of spectacular architecture is developed in the last century. This paper is based on the spectacular architecture and its consequences. The aim of the paper is to reveal the conceptual framework of spectacle and its recent effects in architecture. According to Debord, spectacle defines a society full of spectacular objects and images. Both objects and their images are commoditized in the society of the spectacle (See Debord, 1996). The commoditization process promotes the process of consumption. The images of the objects are even consumed during these processes. Hence, the production of the object is mainly replaced by the production of image in today’s society. Images are easily and rapidly produced by using computer technology. They are commonly shared, experienced and consumed on media. So, spectacle becomes even more challenging in architecture and society.
Computer technology and media pave the way for the spectacle to enhance its effects throughout the world. Commercial is now the essential part of this world. Almost every product is commercialized today. Architectural products are also commercialized as any other industrial product. Media promotes these products together with their spectacular packages. Content already becomes irrelevant due to the fact that package is now more significant. Many architectural products have spectacular packages as well. Particularly their sophisticated facades turn them into spectacular products. They are seen as the most valuable products in the recent architecture. However, value does not only depend on spectacle or capital in architecture; it is also based on the social, environmental and cultural value of the architectural product.
Spectacle is the consequence of the capitalist economy policies. It now becomes more dominant in the big cities in which capitalist and neoliberalist economy policies are adapted. Big and spectacular buildings define the unique places and identities of these cities within the global world. Besides, spectacle turns them into touristic places. It points out to the fact that spectacle is especially for tourists and consumers. The culture of spectacle leads all of us to become tourists in our own cities. But cities are expected to enhance the sense of belonging. Architectural objects are also expected to be produced based on the real needs and requirements of the city-dwellers. They should not be produced to be spectacular objects or images. And such, this production process should not negatively affect the balance in between nature and architecture. But the big cities suffering from the big architectural productions and their costs lose their natural habitat day by day. They become bigger and bigger in such a way that they would recently meet other big cities and so the world would eventually turn into a giant city. Spectacle makes the world a whole, but a fragmented whole actually. This united and fragmented world is mainly discussed via Debord’s theory of the society of the spectacle and today’s spectacular architecture by the concepts such as mediatic, hypnotic, fetishistic, photogenic, iconic, dynamic, atmospheric, egocentric, eccentric and ecstatic in the paper.
Spectacular architectural products today are generally experienced by the city-dwellers as if they are tourists. Spectacle leads the relations of architecture and society to be disjunted. This disjunction is initiated within the industrial era of the 20th century and it is enhanced within the digital era of the 21st century. It is critically discussed in the paper due to the fact that it sets architecture apart from the social needs, values, dynamics and realities. It is emphasized that spectacle both unites and fragmentizes today’s world. Yet, it is a fact that spectacular architecture and the society of the spectacle would be even more effective and dominant in the future. Because today’s political, financial and sociological conditions and technological opportunities would be more powerful in the world of the future. On the other side, not only spectacular images or image effects but also social needs and benefits should be significant for architects, designers, politicians, businesspeople and all the individuals in the society. We should redesign the relations in between architecture and society. We should balance the relations in between production and consumption as well. Architecture is actually a social production beyond our desires and consumption habits. It is about designing by thinking on encounters, spatial experiences and social relations. It is not a mere spectacular production.

RESEARCH (THESIS)
13.Spatial Examination of Constructivist Architecture on the Basis of Utopia and Reality
Ali Güney Yakar
doi: 10.14744/tasarimkuram.2021.92905  Pages 169 - 188
1917 Ekim Devrimi’nin gerçekleşmesinin ardından Vladimir Tatlin’in sanatı üretimin bir parçası haline getirme düşüncesi ve gerçek malzemeler gerçek mekânda vurgusu ile ürettiği çalışmaları ve 1920 yılında III. Enternasyonal Anıtı’nın Moskova’da sergilenmesinin sonucunda büyük bir kırılma yaratmış, konstrüktivizm aşamalı olarak S. S. C. B’nin ana akım sanatına ve mimarlığına dönüşmüştür. III. Enternasyonal Anıtı’nı referans olarak kabul eden mimarlar ve sanatçılar tiyatro sahneleri, dekorlar, afişler, çizimler olmak üzere konstrüktivist mimarlığın ütopya kapsamında değerlendirilen örneklerini tasarlamışlar fakat devrim mimarlığı, konstrüktivistlerin teorilerini yeniden yorumlayan mimarlar tarafından inşa edilmiştir. Çalışmanın amacı; 1922 – 1932 yılları arasında konstrüktivist mimarlığın mimarlık tarihindeki yerini, ütopya mimarlığı ile uygulanan tasarımlar arasındaki açı farkını, benzerlikleri ve konstrüktivist mimarlığın S. S. C. B’nin toplumsal yaşamındaki karşılığını siyaset ve sanat arasındaki ilişkiyi esas alarak ortaya koymaktır. Bu amaç doğrultusunda; tektonik, faktura, konstrüksiyon disiplinlerinin sanat – siyaset – mekân arasında kurduğu ilişki reel ve ütopya düzleminde yapılan tasarımlar üzerinden incelenmekte, ütopya mimarlığının devrim mimarlığının oluşmasındaki belirleyici rolü üzerinde durulmaktadır. Sosyal yoğunlaştırıcı kavramının mimarlık pratiğindeki yansımaları olan işçi kulüpleri, komün evi, kültür sarayları, gazete binaları, konut yapıları olmak üzere mekân organizasyonu açısından sosyalist düzenin belirleyici etkisi vurgulanmakta, reel ve ütopya düzleminde olmak üzere tasarımların S. S. C. B’nin ihtiyaçlarına cevap verip vermediği sorusu neden – sonuç ilişkisine bağlı olarak tartışılmaktadır.
After the 1917 October Revolution, Vladimir Tatlin developed the novel idea of integrating artistic creation into the bigger scope of production. This theory was expressed with emphasize on real materials in real space. The display of the Monument to the Third International in 1920 marked a turning point and constructivism became the USSR’s main stream artistic and architecture style. Taking the Monument to the Third International as a reference, architects and artists designed what have been deemed as utopian examples of constructivist architecture using theater stages, decorations, posters, and drawings. However, revolutionary architecture was built on the efforts of the architects who reformulated constructivist approach.
Anatoli Lunacharsky who was appointed as the head of Narkompros, assigned avant-garde artists to institutions affiliated to Narkompros due to their support for the revolution. Tatlin, who was appointed as the head of the Moscow Fine Arts Department in 1919, emphasized that the distinction between plastic arts should disappear and the artist should have an engineer formation in his writings. The fact that Vkhutemas’s education program is immanent to Tatlin’s ideas, and his assignment to design Monument to the Third International within the scope of Lenin’s Monumental Program gave Tatlin a chance to apply his ideas in practice and provide a basis for the constructivism movement to rise. Design of Monument to the Third International led to the adoption of Tatlin’s ideas by different artists and architects, afterwards First Working Group of Constructivists was formed in 1921. Constructivists had declared the tectonic style, factura and construction disciplines in which the theory of constructivist architecture is shaped in their programs, in which they refer to historical materialism and scientific socialism.
Monument to the Third International, the first monument of machine art, is a living organism where socialist propaganda is carried out, which overcomes the barrier of time and space due to its technological equipment, and contains spaces where socialist culture can be experienced. The monument, where tectonic style, factura and construction disciplines correspond, influenced names such as Alexander Rodchenko, Lyobov Popova, Alexander Vesnin, as well as Gustav Klutsis who completed his education in Vkhutemas, Naum Gabo who criticized the constructivist theories, El Lissitzky whose work was heavily influenced by Suprematism and Yakov Chernikhov, who designed technically advanced examples of constructivist architecture on the utopia plane. Nevertheless, designs that are impossible to implement created by the constructivists without considering the objective conditions of the USSR, the technological possibilities of the period and the needs of the society show that the contradiction of constructivists’ discourses and architectural practices.
In the period between 1922 and 1925, the practice of constructivists was proven to be applicable and the constructivist theory was reconsidered with a realistic approach. The Vesnin Brothers’ Palace of Labour design, which is essential for the development of constructivist architecture, is a design where tectonic, factura and construction disciplines correspond, the use of industrial materials is emphasized, reflects the socialist culture with analogy, and most importantly, it can be applied with the technological possibilities of its age. Just as Monument to the Third International is the cornerstone of the development of constructivist architecture on the utopia level, the design of the Palace of Labour, is also a touchstone in the real plane. Another essential development was Ginzburg’s work Style and Epoch that reconsiders the theory of constructivist architecture and puts it on a real plane. Constructivist architecture was introduced to the USSR with the establishment of OSA in 1925 under the leadership of Vesnin and Ginzburg. Between 1925 and 1932/1934, the constructivists, who aimed to organize the collective life in a world where there was no hierarchy, and to convey the achievements of the proletarian culture and socialist order to the society through architecture, were based on the concept of social condensor. They have succeeded in building workers’ clubs, palaces of culture, commune houses and residential buildings in different regions of the USSR.
The aim of this paper is to shed light on the role of constructivist architecture within the greater context of architectural history, the difference and similarities between Utopian architecture and applied designs, and the application of constructivist architecture in communal living practices of the USSR. Analyzing the relationship between arts and politics is critical to this discussion. With this aim, the relation of arts-politics-space, created by the disciplines of tectonic unites, faktura, and construction, is evaluated through real and utopian designs. The decisive role that the utopian architecture played in the formation of a revolutionary architecture style is elaborated on. Therefore, the question is posed as to whether the real and utopian designs met the needs of the USSR through the cause and effect relation.

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