ISSN: 1302-2636 | E-ISSN: 2757-668X
Journal of Design+Theory - Tasarım Kuram: 18 (36)
Volume: 18  Issue: 36 - 2022
1.Full Issue PDF

Pages I - 196

INVITED ARTICLE
2.From ‘Decorative Arts’ to the Department of Interior Architecture
Saadet Aytıs
doi: 10.14744/tasarimkuram.2022.64497  Pages 1 - 17
Türkiye’nin ilk ve en köklü içmimarlık okulu olan Mimar Sinan Güzel Sanatlar Üniversitesi Mimarlık Fakültesi İç Mimarlık Bölümü’nün ilk nüvesini oluşturan birim, 1882 yılında kurulan Mekteb-i Sanâyi-i Nefîse-i Şâhâne bünyesinde 1914 yılında faaliyete geçen Tezyinat Bölümü’dür; ancak, Dâhili Tezyinat Bölümü’nün kurulduğu 1923 yılı Türkiye’de iç mimarlık eğitiminin başladığı yıl olarak kabul edilir. Bölümün kurulduğu dönemlerde dâhili tezyinat denildiğinde iç mekânların süslenmesi, bezenmesi, ev mobilyaları ve ilk dönemlerini yaşayan sanayi sergilerindeki iç mekânların süslenmesi anlaşılır. Erken cumhuriyet dönemi ve devamında mimari kabuk yanında iç mekanlara da gösterilen ilginin arttığı, fonksiyona uygun mobilyaların tasarlandığı ve mekanlarda kullanıldığı, bu konunun basında ve reklamlarda da oldukça fazla işlenmeye başlandığı dikkat çeker. 1928 yılında Güzel Sanatlar Akademisi ismini alan okul bünyesinde yerli ve yabancı hocalarla eğitim yapan Dâhili Tezyinat Bölümü yıllar içerisinde değişen yönetmelikler, açılan atölyeler eşliğinde önemli gelişmeler yaşar. Bünyesinde kurulan ahşap atölyesiyle öğrencilerin uygulamalı eğitimleri sağlanırken, kurum içi birçok mobilyanın da üretimi buralarda gerçekleşir. Dâhili Tezyinat Bölümü hocaları kurum dışı işler için çokça teklif alır, bunlarla ilgili kurum tarafından görevlendirilirler. Ülkenin iç mekân düzenleme anlayışı, Akademi’yle paralel olarak gelişme gösterir. 1955 yılında Dâhili Mimari Bölümü’nün adı Dekoratif Sanatlar Bölümü İç Mimari Atölyesi olarak değişir. 1965 yılında Paris Dekoratif Sanatlar Okulu’nun Türkiye’ye gelerek Akademi salonlarında açtığı sergi ülke genelinde büyük yankı uyandırır. 1969 yılında çıkan yasayla Akademi’nin resmi adı, İstanbul Devlet Güzel Sanatlar Akademisi olarak değişir ve bilimsel özerklik gelir. 1970’li yıllarda İDGSA Yüksek Dekoratif Sanatlar Bölümü çatısı altında İç Mimarlık ve Endüstri Tasarımı olarak iki ayrı disiplinin varlığı söz konusudur. 1981 yılında YÖK çatısı altına giren, 1982 yılında Mimar Sinan Üniversitesi, 2004 yılında Mimar Sinan Güzel Sanatlar Üniversitesi adını alan kurumda İç Mimarlık Bölümü Mimarlık Fakültesi bünyesinde varlığını sürdürmektedir.
The Department of Decorative Arts, which entered into service in 1914 within the body of Mekteb-i Sanâyi-i Nefîse-i Şâhâne established in 1882, is the core of Mimar Sinan Fine Arts University Faculty of Architecture Department of Interior Architecture, Turkey’s first interior architecture school which has a deep-rooted history. However, the year 1923, when the Department of Dahili Tezyini Arts (Interior Decoration) was established was accepted as the start of interior architecture education in Turkey. When the department was established, interior decoration meant the ornamentation and decoration of the interior, domestic furniture, and the ornamentation of the interior in the first period of the industrial exhibition. Along with architecture, the early Republic period and afterward experienced an increase in interest in indoor, design, the use of functional furniture, as well as media and advertisement interest in this topic.
Within the scope of the school that takes the name Fine Arts Academy in 1928, the Department of Interior Decoration, which hosts national and international teachers, undergoes significant developments with the changing regulations and the opening of workshops. The country’s sense of interior decoration evolves in parallel with the Academy. While the academy’s education is influenced by global and Turkish developments, it also evolves and continues dynamically, with the establishment of new departments and workshops. The Interior Architecture Workshop, founded in 1929, is one of the most notable examples. As a result, the Department of Interior Decoration becomes more specialized, and interior design becomes a more important profession in Turkey.
The influence of foreign instructors who came to the Academy in the 1930s lasted for many years. The influences that begin with the French ecole shift to the German ecole. Beginning in the 1930s, the Academy began to provide notable experience to students through wood workshops, in addition to theoretical and applied training. In addition to education, both Interior Architecture Workshop teachers and Architecture teachers are interested in furniture design; these designs are produced in the workshop and used in various places throughout the Academy. Notable efforts are made to improve the efficiency of the wood workshop, which contributes to the education in the Interior Architecture Branch. Thus, the production of custom-design furniture becomes possible.
The Academy, which has operated in various buildings since its founding, suffers significant damage in a fire that breaks out only after it has been relocated to the Double Palaces in Fınıdklı in 1948. Workshops, classes, offices, lecture theaters, and rooms are damaged beyond repair. The wood workshop, which is located outside of the building and was not damaged by the fire, emerges as a notable savior during this difficult period. People work around the clock to make the facilities usable again and to keep education going. The department’s instructors design the necessary furniture as well as continue production in school and outside workshops. The building, where nothing but the walls remained, was reborn as an art school thanks to great commitment.
The Department of Interior Architecture is renamed the Department of Decorative Arts Interior Architecture Workshop in 1955. Interior architecture education following the global trends and especially in Europe, places a strong emphasis on international relationships and collaborations, with both national and international teachers. Regarding an invitation, the French National School of Decorative Arts (Ecole Des Beaux Arts) came to Turkey and opened an exhibition in the Academy saloons in 1965, leaving a deep impression.
With the Law enacted in 1969, the Academy’s official name was changed to Istanbul State Fine Arts Academy (IDGSA), and the institution gained scientific autonomy. The IDGSA High Decorative Arts Department had two distinct disciplines, Interior Architecture, and Industrial Design in the 1970s. According to their final year options, students graduate as industrial designers or interior architects. In the upcoming years, the concepts of interior architecture and interior architect begin to solidify, as does the importance and interest shown in the design of spaces. Following the activities of the Interior Architects Community, the establishment of the Chamber of Interior Architects is also valuable in terms of emphasizing the significance of interior design and professional dignity. The Chamber of Interior Architects, UCTEA, gains prominence as one of the first professional organizations.
The institution first enters under the roof of YÖK (Higher Council of Education) in 1981 and was renamed Mimar Sinan University in 1982 and Mimar Sinan Fine Arts University in 2004. It still carries out activities under the Department of Interior Architecture Faculty of Architecture.

RESEARCH
3.The Exploration and Design of Barış Manço Museum Centered on New Museology
Mehmet Sinan Yum
doi: 10.14744/tasarimkuram.2021.00821  Pages 18 - 40
Klasik müzecilik farklı kültürlere ait mirasın toplumsal olarak paylaşılması amacıyla 300 yıldır kullanılan bir yaklaşımdır. Kültür, tarih ve doğa temalı merkezlerde geleneksel müzecilik yaklaşımlarının uygulanması içerik açısından demografik ve stratejik sebepler nedeniyle hedeflenen kullanıcı deneyimi etkisini sağlayamamaktadır. Bilgi çağına girişten itibaren yaşanan teknolojik gelişmeler nedeniyle çağdaş iletişim yöntemleri belirmiştir ve bu durumun bir sonucu olarak klasik müzecilik yeni müzeciliğe dönüşmektedir. Bu dönüşümün açıklanması amacıyla çalışmaya konu edilen Barış Manço Müzesi (BMM), sanatçının müzisyen, televizyoncu, oyuncu, gezgin ve eğitmen kişiliğiyle toplum nezdinde yaratmış olduğu olumlu etkiyi yansıtan bir yapıdır. Sanatçının yerel ve küresel birçok kültürde iz bırakmış olması ve adına bulunan merkeze ait özelliklerin çalışmanın hedefleriyle örtüşmesi sebebiyle tartışma bölümünde sunulan müze tasarım teklifi açıklanmaktadır.
Araştırma yazar tarafından gerçekleştirilmiş bir tez çalışmasının hedeflerine artı değer sağlanması amacıyla bir tasarım modeli sunmaktadır. Bu bağlamda araştırmada, eğitlence kavramını ve laboratuvar çalışması olarak kullanılan merkez ekseninde yeni müzecilik yaklaşımına uygun özgün bir tasarım önerisi sunulmakta, Barış Manço Müzesi özelinde klasik müzeciliğin yeni müzeciliğe dönüşümü incelenerek modern sergileme yöntemlerinin uygulandığı bir eğitlence modeli ortaya konulmaktadır. Çalışmada aynı zamanda klasik ve yeni müzecilik açısından kullanılan sergi yöntemleri ile ziyaretçi kimlikleri saptanarak elde edilen bulguların yeni müzecilik stratejileri açısından konumunun belirlenmesi hedeflenmektedir. Yeni müzecilik anlayışının doğurduğu sergi düzeniyle ilgili mekânsal ve ürün odaklı tasarım yaklaşımları açısından incelenmesi sonucunda çalışmanın sonunda elde edilen bulgulara yönelik tasarım ekseninde öneriler sağlanmaktadır.
Classical museology is an approach that has been used for 300 years to socially share cultural heritage. The implementation of traditional museology approaches in culture, history and nature-themed centers cannot provide the targeted user experience effect due to demographic and strategic reasons in terms of content. Modern communication methods have emerged due to technological developments since the beginning of the information age and as a result of this progress, classical museology has transformed into new museology. In visitor experience-oriented centers, user satisfaction is not just about the quality of a collection or exhibition, but the result of the museum as a whole. Recently, changing visitor expectations have shifted in the direction of increased experience quality. Classical museology methods that did not change for a long time due to insufficient technology in the past, are being replaced by new museology methods resulting in the emergence of exhibitions that allow each center to offer a unique experience. The primary centers selected and discussed in line with the objectives of the study are biographical museums. By definition, biographical museums are centers that aim to exhibit the life, works, and thoughts of historical identities that carry social importance. The social formation provided by the expression of people with identities worth presenting has the power to instill a sense of belonging and to root social awareness in new generations. Museums belonging to artistic figures and their productions play an active role in raising social awareness as a reflection of the periodical socio-cultural and economic structure.
The research presents a design model in order to provide an additional value to the objectives of a thesis study conducted by the author. In this context, the concept of edutainment is explained and an original design proposal in accordance with the new museology approach with an educational model is presented. Through this process, the transformation of classical museology into new museology is elaborated and explained. Another scope of the study is to determine the orientation of the findings regarding the exhibition methods used in terms of classical and new museology and discovering user identities in relation to new museology strategies. As a result of the examination process in terms of spatial and product-oriented design implementations related to the exhibition created by new museology approaches, design-centered suggestions are provided. Within the study, the selected Barış Manço Museum is one of the most important examples of biography-centered classical museums that constitutes a cultural reference point for examining the theoretical transition of classical museology to new museology. The primary research question of the study may be presented as ‘In what way would it be possible to transform and upgrade a classical museum into a modern museology center?’. The study focuses on Barış Manço Museum (BMM) in order to explain this transformation, being a structure that reflects the positive impact the artist has created on society as a musician, tv personality, actor, traveler, and instructor. The museum design proposal presented in the discussions section is evaluated in order to present an insight on the approach. The implementation realized for the research has been put forward in line with the literature-based criteria and design goals determined as a result of the interviews with the museum director. The design proposal creates a design alternative in terms of new museology, offering suggestions on what forms, products, and targets a possible implementation can be made.
Edutainment design is a design method that includes the use of entertaining and educational content for the purpose of knowledge formation. As revealed in the final part of the research, it may be possible to develop Barış Manço Museum based on the design proposal centered on new museology. In this context, suggestions on feasible edutainment products and their user experience-centered effects are explained. The most important value of the new museology approach is to offer each visitor an individual experience by accessing information through interactive systems. The new museology approach can shorten the distance between the exhibitions and inexperienced visitors as well as providing additional features for expert visitors on the presented material. As stated among the findings of the study, the most obvious possibility offered by the edutainment method is about technology-centered applications provided by new museology for knowledge formation.

4.Reading the Sub-Texts Constituting Boullée’s Paper Architecture Through the Cenotaf Building Type
Sezen Başak Özünur Şahin, Hilal Tuğba Örmecioğlu
doi: 10.14744/tasarimkuram.2022.92408  Pages 41 - 52
Etimolojik kelime karşılığı boş mezar anlamına gelen kenotaf (cenotaph) yapı tipinin mezar, anıt ve tapınağa dayalı mimari temelleri, bu yapı tipinin ilk çağlardan itibaren süregelen anıtsal ve sembolik yapı üretiminin bir parçası olarak okunmasının yolunu açar. Kenotaflar Étienne-Louis Boullée (1728-1799)’nin de belirttiği üzere adanmış oldukları kişinin anısını taşıyan, anlamsal ve sembolik göndermelerle yüklü yapılardır. Bu bağlamda değerlendirildiğinde Boullée’nin ele aldığı şekliyle kenotaf yapı tipi ussal, ampirik ve sembolik bir varoluşu içeren çok yönlü yapısıyla özgül bir tartışma potansiyeli barındırmakta ve Boullée’nin kâğıt mimarisini oluşturan alt metinlerin okunabilmesi açısından önem taşımaktadır.
Bu doğrultuda çalışma kapsamında öncelikle, Boullée’nin mimarlık üretimini gerçekleştirdiği 18. yüzyıl Avrupa’sının yaşam biçimi ve mimarlık anlayışı, Boullée’nin tasarım anlayışıyla ilişkisi çerçevesinde irdelenecektir. Ardından Boullée’nin kenotaf yapıları üzerinden sürdürülecek, anlam, teknik ve forma dair okumaları içeren bir değerlendirme ile mimarın sembolik, ampirik ve ussal alt metinleri bir arada içeren tasarım anlayışının ortaya koyulması hedeflenmektedir.
Tomb, monument, and temple-based architectural foundations of the cenotaph building type, which etymologically means an empty tomb, paves the way for it to be read as a part of the ongoing production of monumental and symbolic structures since the first ages. As Étienne-Louis Boullée (1728-1799) stated, cenotaphs are buildings loaded with semantic and symbolic references bearing the memory of the person they are dedicated to. When evaluated in this context, the cenotaph typology, as approached by Boullée, has a specific potential for discussion with its multilayered aspect, which includes rational, empirical, and symbolic existence, and is important in terms of reading the sub-texts that form the basis of his paper architecture.
Throughout the 18th century, all social, political, economic, scientific, and cultural developments that caused the culture of science and modernization, which would gradually push the limits of envisagement based on form and materials, affected all kinds of design and production activities carried out in this period. Paper architecture, as a field where innovative ideas based on envisagement can find a response, is also important in terms of being able to read the context of the period. Within this framework, the aim of the study is to examine Boullée’s approach to the cenotaph building type, to read the sub-texts of his paper architecture, and to trace the multilayered structure of the transformation process that occurred with the effect of Enlightenment. This reading was carried out through three basic frameworks defined within the scope of the study: context, form, and technique that include the social, cultural, political, economic, technical, etc. sub-texts of the period.
In this context first it has examined that the etymological origin of the word cenotaph, its semantic expansions, and the historical transformation of the cenotaph building type with its meaning and importance in Boullée’s paper architecture. The discussion on Boullée’s cenotaph structures was carried out within the framework of in parallel with the examination of the change and cenotaph building type foundations in architectural theory and practice of the 18th century. It is revealed within the framework of his design approach that the relationship with the manners of life and architectural understanding of the 18th century Europe, where Boullée produced his architecture.
Throughout with an evaluation that includes readings on context, technique, and form, it is revealed that the architect’s understanding of design, which includes rational, also empirical (with nature-based references) and symbolic subtexts together. While conveying the examples of mausoleums and cenotaphs, on the one hand, he emphasizes the innovative aspect of his forms and compositions, reflecting his rational point of view, also the references that comes from nature itself and on the other hand, he draws attention to the symbolic and mystical aspects of these designs. In this respect, Boullée’s design approach could be read together with the multilayered subtexts of the context in which it was produced.
As a result, while the multi-dimensional context of the 18th century, on the one hand, based on the industrialization and Enlightenment which paved the way for modernization, strengthened through scientific and technical studies, has a rational quality where standardization and efficiency is essential; on the other hand, maintains an understanding of symbolic, mystical, and bourgeois-based ostentatiousness.
It is possible to read the traces of this reformist approach, which has based on an abstract and rational symbolism also has an empirical background, with the innovative attitude of its context through Boullée’s envisagement-based architecture. The rational and social path that opened with his approach to the cenotaph building type in the context of revolutionary paper architecture is substantial in that is an early example of the new understanding of scale, rational criticism, and sociability in the field of architecture which performed today. Also, it is important in terms of emphasizing the necessity of understanding the architectural design together with its sub-texts, include the contextual, technical, and form-based discussions of the period in which was produced.

5.The Mills in the Ottoman Period Izmir City Center: Their Role in the Industrialization Process of the City and its Perception
Halil İbrahim Alpaslan
doi: 10.14744/tasarimkuram.2022.05658  Pages 53 - 62
İzmir kent merkezinde Osmanlı döneminde inşa edilen değirmenleri konu alan bu çalışmanın amacı literatürde çok fazla yer bulamamış bu yapıların görsel ve yazılı kaynaklardaki izlerinin bir araya getirerek tarihçelerini ortaya koymak ve kentin mimari algısına ve sanayileşme süreçlerindeki rollerine dair tespit ve yorumlar üretmektir.
İzmir kent merkezindeki değirmenler hakkındaki bilgiler temelde iki farklı kaynaktan elde edilmektedir. Bunlardan birincisi çağdaş araştırmacıların ve tarihsel yazılı kaynakların değirmenler ve özellikle İzmir değirmenleri hakkındaki aktarımlarıdır. Bu aktarımlar çoğunlukla değirmen adedi, ödenen vergi, tahıl işleme kapasitesi gibi mimari özelliklere dair ipucu vermeyen nicel verilerle sınırlıdır. İkinci kaynak grubu ise çizim ve fotoğraflardır. İzmir kent merkezini kapsayan planlar, gravürler ve 19. yüzyılla birlikte ortaya çıkan fotoğraflar taranarak bu belgelerde değirmenler tespit edilmeye çalışılacaktır. Yine 19. yüzyılda günümüz tekniklerine yakın karakterde çizilen kent planlarından da bu bağlamda yararlanılacaktır.
Değirmenler bezemeden uzak işlevsel mimarileri nedeni ile mimarlık tarihi anlatılarında çok fazla değinilmeyen yapılardır. Buna koşut olarak Osmanlı dönemi İzmir’ini ele alan bir çok çalışmada değirmenlere ya hiç değinilmemiş ya da nicel verilerin aktarılması ile yetinilerek değinilmiştir. Ancak özellikle 17. yüzyılda, kenti gösteren gravürlerin artması ile birlikte değirmenlerin kent siluetindeki belirleyiciliklerini fark etmemek mümkün değildir. Erken dönemlerde Değirmendağı ve Halkapınar’daki değirmenler kent merkezinin kuzey ve güney sınırlarını belirlerken 19. yüzyılda özellikle sahile inşa edilen Gout değirmeni kısa süreli de olsa kentin denizden algısındaki en önemli figürlerden biri haline gelmiştir. Değirmenlerin kent algısına etkilerinin yanı sıra sanayi devriminin kentteki erken yansımalarının izlerini taşımaları onları kentin sanayi tarihi için de önemli bir noktaya taşımaktadır. Bu bağlamda en erken tarihli buhar makinasının 19. yüzyılın başında inşa edilen Punta değirmeninde tespit edilebilmesi kentin sanayi devrimine eklemlenme tarihi açısından da önemli bir ipucu olarak değerlendirilebilir.
The aim of this study is to bring together the limited information in visual and written sources about the now nonextant mills in the Ottoman period İzmir city center, and to reveal their history by making observations and comments on their contribution to the architectural image of the city that was taking shape with the industrialization processes.
The information about the mills in the İzmir city center is basically obtained from two different sources. The first of these is what historical written sources and contemporary researchers convey about the mills, particularly the mills of İzmir. These are mostly limited to quantitative data such as the number of mills, paid taxes, and grain processing capacity, which do not give any clues about architectural features. The second group of sources are drawings and photographs. By scanning the city plans, engravings and photographs of the city center, the locations of the mills were in these documents, as well as the 19th century city plans that are drawn with a character close to today’s techniques.
In some of the engravings and plans, the mills are shown schematically, while in others the architectural details and dimensions are conveyed more carefully. Undoubtedly, photographs provide much more precise data on this subject, but unfortunately, more closer photographs of the Ottoman period Izmir mills were not available. In fact, this absence can be interpreted as an indication of the perception that mills appear as industrial structures devoid of aesthetic qualities. Mills are generally located in very small sizes in silhouette photographs, and since they come in simple designs to serve their industrial purposes, it is very difficult to find the kind of information from which rich architectural interpretations can be drawn. However, thanks to these photographs, at least the heights of the structures can be estimated approximately. The emergence of city plans close to today’s drawing techniques in the 19th century constitutes another important source group in this context. The Graves plans of 1836 and the Saad plans of 1876 especially provide important data about the mills. Thanks to the Graves map, it was possible to identify the earliest steam-powered mill in the city, and thanks to the Saad map, the plan, shape, and dimensions of many mills were able to be determined.
Mills are structures that are far from decoration and are not mentioned much in architectural history narratives due to their functional architecture. For this reason, in many studies dealings with the Ottoman period Izmir, mills are either not included at all or they are conveyed with quantitative data. However, with the increase of engravings showing the city, especially with the 17th century, it is impossible not to notice the prominent role of the mills in the city silhouette.
Since windmills developed as tower-shaped high structures to receive the wind better, they also had a strong visibility in the city’s silhouette. Even though the windmills in Izmir could not compete with their counterparts in Dutch and Belgian cities in terms of an emphatic presence in the skyline, their modest appearance in İzmir, as documented in engravings and photographs of the period, attests to an important architectural quality in the history of the image of the city that deserves to addressed in the right perceptual context.
While the mills in Değirmendağı and Halkapınar determined the northern and southern borders of the city center in the early periods, the Gout mill, which was built on the coast in the 19th century, became one of the most important figures in the perception of the city from the sea, albeit for a short time. In addition to the effects of the mills on the perception of the city, the traces of the early reflections of the industrial revolution in the city carry them to an important point for the industrial history of the city. In this context, detection of the earliest steam engine in the Punta mill, which was built at the beginning of the 19th century, can be considered as an important point in terms of the city’s taking part in the history of the industrial revolution.

REVIEW ARTICLE
6.The New Agenda of Urban Transportation: Changing Travel Trends, Urban Mobility and COVID
Senay Oğuztimur
doi: 10.14744/tasarimkuram.2022.45220  Pages 63 - 79
Kentlerde yaşayan insanlar için; kentsel ulaşım, gündelik yaşantının doğal bir parçasıdır. Sıradan bir kentli, 20.yy’da gitmek istediği yere, büyük olasılıkla motorlu bir aracın yardımıyla ulaşabilmektedir. Kentlerde taşıt araçları için gerekli altyapının sunulması, bu araçların kullanımını giderek daha da kolaylaştırmıştır. Yaygınlaşan taşıt araçları ise, yolculuk talebini tetikleyerek yük ve yolcu hareketlerinin artmasına neden olmuştur. Ancak kısa denilebilecek bir süre sonra, ulaşımın ekonomik ve çevresel maliyetleri katlanabilir olmaktan çıkmış ve kentlerdeki yaşam kalitesi düşmüştür. Böylece motorlu taşıt araçları odağında gelişen kentler ve ulaşım planları sorgulanır olmuştur. Daha sürdürülebilir ulaşım sistemlerine yönelik arayışlar bu şekilde başlamıştır. Erişilebilirliği, yayayı, mikro hareketlilik araçlarını gözeten yeni ulaşım paradigması artık kentlerin yeni gündemini oluşturmaktadır.
Bu çalışma, mevcut ulaşım sistemi ile yukarıda özetlenen gerekçelerle ortaya çıkan yeni ulaşım paradigmasının kavramsal olarak karşılaştırması ile başlamıştır. Ardından, seyahat eğilimlerinde yaşanan değişimler nedenleriyle birlikte ele alınmıştır. Bugünün yük ve yolcu ulaşımındaki eğilimlerin tespit edilmesi, gelecekteki ulaşım sistemine yön vermek bakımından önem taşımaktadır. Bu eğilimleri değiştiren unsurlar; ekonomik, sosyal, teknolojik ve çevresel başlıklarında incelenmiştir. Son olarak, COVİD-19 salgının, mevcut eğilimlere ve ulaşımın paydaşlarına olan etkileri üzerinde durulmuştur. Bu makalenin amacı, kentsel ulaşımın gündemini oluşturan yeni ulaşım paradigmasına, değişen eğilimlere ve COVİD salgının ulaşım üzerindeki etkilerine işaret etmektir. Makale, nitel araştırma yöntemiyle ikincil veri taramasına dayalı olarak kurgulanmıştır. Sonuç olarak ortaya çıkan yeni seyahat davranışları, hem dikkate alınması gereken bulgulardır, hem de sonuçlardır. Ulaşımda COVİD-19 salgını nedeniyle hızlanan yeniden yapılanma süreci, son dönemde kentleri etkileyecek gelişmeleri tarif etmektedir. Yeni hareketlilik davranışları, şehir plancılarının mevcut ulaştırma pratiklerini gözden geçirmesini gerekli kılmaktadır.
For people living in cities; urban transport is a natural part of daily life. In the 20th century, an ordinary citizen can probably reach the place, she/he wants to go, with the help of a motor vehicle. Providing the necessary infrastructure for vehicles in cities has facilitated their usage. The widespread transportation vehicles, on the other hand, triggered the demand for travel and caused an increase in freight and passenger mobility. However, after a short period of time, the economic and environmental costs of transportation ceased to be bearable and the quality of life in cities decreased dramatically. Thus, cities and transportation plans focused on motor vehicles began to be questioned. In this way, the search for more sustainable transportation systems has begun. The new transportation paradigm, which considers accessibility, pedestrian, micro-mobility vehicles, has started to be mentioned more and more.
First of all, this study started with a conceptual comparison of the existing transportation system and the new transportation paradigm that emerged with the reasons outlined above. The existence of the structure, human and traffic density in the cities enabled to emerge the solution from the cities. As cities have difficulty in carrying the burden of automobiles, the basic paradigm in the understanding transportation is questioned and new ideas come to the fore. Environmental pollution, high costs of time and fossil fuels; force citizens to produce healthier solutions in cities. The traditional transportation policies that are demand-oriented and based on the mobility of vehicles from one place to another has been out dated. This understanding has left its place to modern transportation policies. The changes in travel trends are discussed together with their reasons. Determining the trends in today’s freight and passenger transportation is important in terms of directing the future transportation system. The factors that change these trends are paraphrased under four headings: economic, social, technological and environmental. Finally, the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on current trends and transportation stakeholders are emphasized. Local and global measures taken during the global pandemic caused transportation to be completely stopped or slowed down in certain periods. In fact, the pandemic did not only lead to change in passenger behaviors and demands, but also affected all stakeholders of transportation. In the article, its impacts on economic sectors, its impacts on individuals receiving transportation services and its impacts on the public sector are explained with examples.
This study has been prepared to point out these issues that constitute the agenda of urban transportation. The article was created with a qualitative research method and was constructed based on secondary data searching. The analysis and policy reports of international institutions on a global scale were examined, and the issues on the agenda in academic studies were discussed. As a result, new travel behaviors are both findings and consequences to consider. The restructuring process of transportation, which has accelerated due to the COVID-19 pandemic, describes the developments that will affect cities the most in the recent period. New mobility behaviors make it necessary for city planners to review existing transport practices.
Consequently new travel behaviors are both findings and consequences to be considered. The restructuring process, which has to accelerate due to the COVID-19 pandemic in transportation, describes the developments that will affect the cities the most in the recent period. New mobility behaviors make it necessary for city planners to review existing transportation practices. The existing legal/administrative structure needs to be restructured. Renewed structure of transport system needs to gain the competence to meet the requirements.

RESEARCH
7.Design Driven Approach for Sustainbility of Craft: Kahramanmaraş Yemeni
Hatice Kübra Arıkan, Dilek Akbulut
doi: 10.14744/tasarimkuram.2022.08760  Pages 80 - 94
Zanaatlar ve geleneksel ürünler var oldukları toplumların kültürlerini günümüze yansıtan aynalarıdır. Ancak, modern üretim teknolojileri içerisinde zanaatlara ve geleneksel ürünlere gereken önem ve değer verilmediği sürece yok olmaya mahkûmdurlar. Bu duruma karşın, somut olmayan kültürel mirasın korunmasında önemli adımlar atan UNESCO’nun sözleşmelerinde zanaatların ve geleneksel ürünlerin sürdürülebilirliğine ilişkin dikkat çektiği nokta, icra edilerek sürdürülmesidir. Bu sebeple, aynılaşan üretim ve tüketim sistemlerinde zanaatlar ve geleneksel ürünler toplumların farklılaşma unsurları olarak yeniden ele alınmaktadır.
Anadolu’nun kadim geleneklerinden ve zanaatlarından bir tanesi de köşkerliktir. Köşkerlik ayakkabı üreticiliği ve tamirciliğine verilen genel addır. Yemenicilik ise bu geleneğe bağlı olarak gelişen zanaattır. Köşkerlik geleneği içerisinde günümüze kadar ulaşan ve en çok bilinen yemeni, geleneksel yöntemlerle ayağı koruma amaçlı ve ayak giyim ürünü olarak Kahramanmaraş’ta yemeni zanaatkârları tarafından üretilmektedir. Ancak, yemeni zanaatkârlarının sayısının giderek azalması, yemeni zanaatının sürdürülebilirliği için tehlike oluşturmaktadır. Bu kapsamda, endüstriyel tasarım disiplini içerisinde, zanaatları icra eden zanaatkâr topluluğunun sürdürülebilirliği sosyal tasarım kapsamında ele alınırken zanaat üretim sürecinin ve ürünlerinin sürdürülebilirliği ise sürdürülebilirliğin kültürel boyutu ile kesiştiği görülmektedir. Bu çerçevede, zanaatların ve geleneksel ürünlerin sürdürülebilirlik çalışmaları kapsamında ele alınmasında tasarım metotları ise önemli bir araçtır.
“Tasarım Odaklı Düşünme” kullanıcı odaklı anlayışa sahip olması sebebiyle zanaatların ve gelenekse lürünlerin sürdürülebilirlik çalışmalarına katkı sağlama potansiyeline sahiptir. Ayrıca tasarım geliştirme sürecinde farklı uzmanlıkları bir araya getiren ekip çalışmaları ile sosyal ve bilişsel çeşitliliğe katkı sağlamaktadır. Bu sebeple çalışmada, Kahramanmaraş’ta icra edilen yemeni zanaatı özelinde sosyal ve kültürel sürdürülebilirlik için tasarım odaklı düşünme yöntemi çerçevesinde yemeni zanaatkârları ile gerçekleştirilen görüşmeler ışığında bu zanaatın sürdürülebilirliğine dair ürün ve üretim bazında olası çözüm önerileri araştırılmış ve sunulmuştur.
In this study, it is aimed to offer possible solutions for the sustainability of the Kahramanmaraş yemeni craft by evaluating the semi-structured interview and observation results with the craftsmen who practice the Kahramanmaraş yemeni craft through the current method of “Design Thinking”. In addition, this article is aimed to encourage studies on the protection and sustainability of the intangible cultural heritage existing in our country and to support the craftsman-designer cooperation. The concept of sustainability was first explained in the World Conference on Environmental Development held in 1987 and in the report titled “Our Common Future”, known as the Brundtlant Report (WECD, 1987). Sustainability is described by three important dimensions; environmental, economic and social. However, cultural sustainability, which overlaps with the protection of intangible heritage in general, was proposed as a fundamental dimension in sustainability by UNESCO in 1995 and defined as the fourth dimension by Jon Hawkes in 2001. All four dimensions of sustainability contribute to the sustainability of traditional productions and crafts. The sustainability of the Kahramanmaraş yemeni craft included in this research has been examined in terms of its social and cultural dimensions as well as its known environmental and economic dimensions.
Kahramanmaraş yemeni is the product of köşkerlik that Anatolia’s long-established traditional-shoe manufactures’ tradition is. The meaning of the word Köşkerlik; It is the name given to shoe repair and production. The most well-known yemeni, which has survived to the present day, is produced by köşker (who produces traditional shoes in Turkish) in Kahramanmaraş for the purpose of protecting the feet and as a foot wear item made by traditional means.
Kahramanmaraş yemeni is among the crafts that are on the verge of disappearing. The sustainability of Kahramanmaraş yemeni can be considered within the scope of social design studies within the discipline of industrial design. Yemeni, which is a traditional product, and the sustainability of its production are included in the cultural dimension of sustainability. For this reason, it appears as an important case to analyze the difficult relationship of Kahramanmaraş yemeni and its production with design. The current interpretation of the traditional shoe produced using traditional methods in the shoe industry, which has reached the industrial scale and is capable of semi-mass production, is the focus of the study. In this context, field research was conducted with the Kahramanmaraş yemeni craftsmen, and the contribution of the design thinking process, which centered on the user of the Kahramanmaraş yemeni tradition, to the sustainability of this craft was evaluated.
“Design Thinking”, one of the current design methods, has the potential to contribute to the sustainability studies of crafts and traditional products, as it has a user-oriented understanding and is open to the participation of different expertise. The design thinking method is especially for non-designers to learn the design process and apply this process correctly. In order to analyze and process the problem and its framework identified in the process, and to deal with the so-called “wicked problems”, teams of participants from different disciplines are required. For this reason, design is an important tool in the sustainability studies of crafts and products, crafts and products constitute an important resource in design applications.
In this context, as a result of the interviews and observations made with the craftsmen within the scope of the field studies carried out in the study, the sustainability of Kahramanmaraş yemeni was gathered under the headings of the design thinking method. It is necessary to design and develop products that can be produced by the craftsman for the sustainability of the Kahramanmaraş yemeni craft, which are produced with their own unique production technique. The sustainability of Kahramanmaraş yemeni as a product, within the scope of the design thinking method stages; material selection, the processing technique provided by the material, different product forms, customized product groups, new concepts and technically developed products for the needs of the user.

8.An Analytical Look at Mediterranean Modernism in Contemporary Turkish Architecture
Burcu Kütükçüoğlu
doi: 10.14744/tasarimkuram.2022.85530  Pages 95 - 112
Bu makale, Türkiye’nin Ege ve Akdeniz kıyılarında, kitlesel turizmin ve yapılaşmanın yaygınlaştığı 1960’lardan günümüze uzanan dönemde, yerel coğrafi koşullar ve yapı kültürü gözetilerek tasarlanmış mimarlık ürünlerine dair bir araştırmanın teorik çerçevesini, yöntem ve sonuçlarını açıklamaktadır. Araştırma kapsamında, Çanakkale-Hatay arasındaki kıyı şeridinde yer alan ve Akdenizli karakterlere sahip olduğu düşünülen geniş bir yapı ve yerleşimler grubu, kaynak taraması, çalıştaylar ve saha çalışmaları aracılığı ile belirlenmiştir. Beş coğrafi alt bölge altında toplanan bu örnekler, Akdenizli karakterlerini çözümlemek adına, parçası oldukları kültürel peyzaj tipleri ve mimari özellikler bağlamında analiz edilmiştir. Çalışılan yapı ve yerleşimlerin, parçası oldukları kültürel peyzajlara eklemlenme biçimleri, iklim koşullarına karşı sundukları çözümler ve yerel yapı kültürlerini, mimari öğe ve arketipleri yorumlama biçimleri analitik biçimde incelenmiş ve haritalanmıştır. Makalede, Anadolu kıyılarındaki Akdeniz yerelliğinin farklı yorumlarını ortaya koyan bu haritalama ve analiz kategorileri, farklı dönemlere ve coğrafi alt bölgelere ait yapı ve yerleşim örnekleri ile açıklanmaktadır. Araştırmanın ana bulgularından birisi, kültürel coğrafya alanında Akdeniz’e dair kabul edilen zengin mikro-bölgesel çeşitlilik özelliğinin, mimarlık alanında da karşılığının olmasıdır. Bu bağlamda, benzer mimari tasarım araçları ve stratejilerinin, farklı kültürel peyzaj bölgelerinde değişik yorumlara ve sonuç ürünlere yol açtığı gözlemlenmiş ve örneklenmiştir. Bir başka deyişle bu araştırma, Akdeniz’in bir süreklilikler ve farklılıklar mozaiği olduğunu Anadolu coğrafyası örneği ve modern mimari işler üzerinden göstermiş ve bunu, gelişime açık bir veri tabanı altlığı olarak sunmuştur.
The research problematizes the geographic and historic distribution of modern buildings on the Aegean and Mediterranean coasts of Turkey, which are designed with reference to the local landscapes and building cultures and the analysis of the contextual and architectural elements that give them their Mediterranean characters. Furthermore, the reflections of the natural and cultural diversities among the coastal sub-regions on architectural works are within the scope of the study as well.
The major aims of the research are the identification and documentation of those buildings on coastal Anatolia, which have a Mediterranean character, their geographic and thematic mapping and analysis in terms of design criteria. Furthermore, a framework for a database that brings together these quantitative and qualitative data about buildings that represent Mediterranean Modernism in Turkey is the expected outcome of the research.
An exemplary group of modern buildings and settlements with Mediterranean characters are identified through the consecutive processes of literature scan, workshops and site visits and later on analysed in terms of the cultural landscapes they make part of and their architectural characteristics. At the end of these processes, in addition to the mapping that displays factual data about these buildings and settlements, their specific contexts and design strategies are investigated and the large variety resulting from the application of generic architectural ideas to different cultural geographies are observed.
Within the scope of the research, buildings and settlements constructed since 1960s in Anatolian cities with a coast to Aegean and Mediterranean seas and which are designed with reference to local conditions and culture and thus have a Mediterranean character are studied. Only those works that are designed from scratch –no renovation or restoration works- and still standing are included in the research. All of the buildings and settlements studied in the research are published in architectural magazines, books, or digital portals, with the exception of a few discovered during site visits.
The research shows that the modern buildings and settlements that are designed with reference to local conditions and cultures on the Aegean and Mediterranean coasts of Turkey are located on similar categories of cultural landscapes and display similar architectural features and design strategies. However, the study also proves that despite these categorical similarities a large variety of interpretations of Mediterranean modernism exist in these architectural works due to the geographic, ecological, and cultural varieties present among the sub-regions on the coastal strip. Furthermore, it is made clear by this research that certain geographic sub-regions, cultural landscape categories and architectural features are much more dominant with respect to others in the representation and experimentation of Mediterranean modernism. For instance,
“Southern Aegean” sub-region is much more prominent in terms of the number and variety of the works it houses and similarly “touristic coastal strips” come to the fore among other cultural landscape categories while “architectural language” is the dominant one within the design tools in giving a Mediterranean character to buildings and settlements. When the group of works included in the research is analysed in terms of the variety of architectural programs it is seen that touristic facilities and dwellings are the most frequently seen and this finding supports the argument that helped define the scope of the project: Mediterranean discourse grew parallel to the rise of mass tourism in modern and contemporary architecture of Turkey. Last but not least, the different interpretations and solutions presented by the architectural works included in the research shows that there cannot be a simple or singular formula for giving a Mediterranean character to a building or settlement and the
“mosaic” of varieties attributed to the geography of the Mediterranean is also valid for the architecture it hosts.
Mediterranean modernism is a topic that frequently appears in architectural research and literature in the recent years. Since early 20th century architectural discourses and works are produced that helped transform the abstract face of modernism conditioned by machine aesthetics and universalism. Countries like Spain and Italy that defined their national identities largely through the nature and culture of the Mediterranean acted as leaders in this respect and the architectural works produced in these geographies inspired architects from other parts of the region while as well provided topics of discussion for scholars. Mediterranean discourse in Turkish architecture becomes apparent only after 1960s when mass tourism started to develop and the scholarly studies about this topic is limited to certain well-known architects and works. The original value of this research is that it presents a comprehensive mapping of the modern buildings and settlements with a Mediterranean character spreading to a large geographic area and historic period and provides a framework for future projects and studies. Furthermore, this research puts forward the unique contribution of the Anatolian geography to the field of Mediterranean modernism, through examples brought together and presented with an analytical approach.

9.Play and City Relation as a Social Phenomenon: Rhythmanalysis and Place
Bilgen Dündar
doi: 10.14744/tasarimkuram.2022.48378  Pages 113 - 128
Johan Huizinga’nın 1938 yılında ilk kez yayınladığı “Homo Ludens: Oyunun Toplumsal İşlevi Üzerine Bir Deneme” adlı kitabında bahsettiği oyunun kültürel bir olgu olduğu fikri, oyun mekânları metinlerinde çok da tartışılmayan bir konudur. Oyun denilince hep çocuğun akla gelmesi anlayışı, aslında Homo Ludens kavramı çerçevesinde oyunun her yaş grubu için önemli olduğu durumunu dışlamaktadır. Bu dışlama ise kültürel bir olgudur. Genel olarak ciddiyet kavramının zıttı ve boş zaman aktivitesi olarak toplumsal kodlara yerleşen oyun, kültürel bir olgu olarak gerçek değerini edinememiştir. Bu anlayışın mekânsal yansıması da hep eksik kalmıştır ve uzun yıllar bir tasarım problemi olarak ele alınmamıştır. Özellikle Türkiye’de kentlerde çocuklar için oyun mekânı sınırlı alanlarda kalmış, büyükler için ise spor alanları dışında bir alternatif kurgulanmamıştır. Makale bu durumu—oyun kavramının, oyun eyleminin ve bu eylemin gerçekleştiği oyun mekânlarının indirgenmesi sürecini—modernite eleştirisi üzerinden okur. Aynı zamanda oyunun kamusal mekânın bir parçası olma ve kente, her türlü kullanıcıya cevap vererek, nüfuz etme potansiyelini tartışır. Makale bu tür mekânların tasarlanmasında fenomenoloji kuramını temel alır. Oyunun özgürleştirici, dönüştürücü, geliştirici doğasının ancak yere ait, tüm duyuları aktive eden, bireylerin
“sahiplenilmiş zaman”ı deneyimleyebilecekleri tasarımlar ile ortaya çıkabileceğini iddia eder. Bu bağlamda Bernard Tchumi’nin Parc de la Vilette projesi (1983) ile Carve and Omgeving tasarım ofislerinin tasarladığı Be-Mine projesini (2016) değerlendirir. Makale, bu iki proje özelinde her şeyin tanımlı olduğu, işlev-yoğun, nerede neyin yapılacağının direktifinin verildiği mekânlardan bahsetmez. Bunun yerine boşluğun olduğu, kullanıcıların kullanım biçimini kendilerinin belirlediği, bilinmez öngörülemeyen işlevlere de zemin hazırlayan, devamlılığı vurgulayan, esnek, dönüşebilir ve kamusal mekânın tümüne nüfuz eden deneyim temelli oyun mekânlarının oyunun gerçek doğasının ortaya çıkabileceği mekânlar olduğu sonucuna varır.
The act of play, which is inherent in our nature, liberates us from the necessities of modern life, liberates our senses and bodies, develops us individually, and transforms us as it enables interaction and participation with other people, therefore it is both an individual and a social act. Johan Huizinga, in his 1938 book “Homo Ludens: An Essay on the Social Function of Play,” takes play as a social act even further, implying the idea that play is the cement of society. The play that Huizinga talks about is a natural action that cannot be perceived by the rational mind, in which the body and the senses come to the fore. However, in the urban context, which are based on the concepts such as mind-based, classification, norm and organization brought by the modernization process, the mentioned play action cannot find much place for itself. Especially in Turkey, there are playgrounds where the boundaries are clearly drawn, separated according to different age groups rather than being inviting, and more importantly, reduced to equipment. These spaces, which are independent of the place and the user, are almost reduced to a type understanding and take place in our cities. While such a set up play space restricts the emergence of a play experience that will change and transform people, it also does not allow the emergence of the social power of the game, that is, the potential of publicity.
Another issue that harms the social power of play is that it is defined as a situation specific to children only. Huizinga’s idea that the play is a cultural phenomenon is a subject that is not discussed much in the playgrounds texts. The understanding that children always come to mind when it comes to play, in fact, excludes the fact that play is important for all age groups within the framework of the concept of Homo Ludens. This exclusion is also a cultural phenomenon. The play, which is generally the opposite of the concept of seriousness and settled in social codes as a leisure activity, has not acquired its cultural value. This approach emerges as the definition of play spaces for children under the age of twelve in the urban fabric, the exclusion of the gathering of different age groups, and the exclusion of play that is open to everyone, which can be a part of public spaces.
The article focuses on the concept of an improvised, instant, unpredictable and spontaneous play. rather than a game understanding, such as sports activities or chess, with a clear playing field and rules. Such a play concept has been chosen because it coincides with the state of the public space being transformative. The article, which aims to read the current situation of playgrounds within the framework of the criticism of modernity, claims that the potential of public spaces and playgrounds to increase, change and transform interaction can be revealed through design. The article is based on the theory of phenomenology in the design of such spaces. It claims that the liberating, transformative and developing nature of play can only emerge with designs that belong to the place, activate all the senses, and where individuals can experience “owned time” (approprié). In this context, it evaluates Bernard Tchumi’s Parc de la Vilette project (1983) and the Be-Mine project (2016) designed by Carve and Omgeving design offices.
These two projects tell us that the way for public spaces to include free actions that will change and transform people and to create associations is not mechanical, designs in which the directive of what to do is given clearly in the space. Instead, it reveals that it is possible with more flexible designs that will allow different possibilities. In Lefebvre’s words, these are spaces where each individual will be involved with her/his own polyrhythm and reach eurhythm in harmony with the rhythm of other individuals and the place / space.

RESEARCH (THESIS)
10.Metaphoric Approaches in Urban Space: An Analysis Method Proposal in the Context of Practical Design Criteria
Taha Dutoğlu, Esin Özlem Aktuğlu Aktan
doi: 10.14744/tasarimkuram.2022.67625  Pages 129 - 149
Kolektif yaşamın vücut bulduğu yer olarak kentsel mekânlar, kentlilerin birbirleriyle iletişime geçtikleri yegâne noktalardır. Hüznün, acının, isyanın veya neşenin, kutlamanın, sevincin adresi kent mekânları, sadece somut verilerin dikkate alınmasıyla tasarlanamaz; çünkü duygu barındırır, bir geçmişe sahiptir ve “izler” taşır. Tüm bu soyut durumlar da tasarlanan mekânın değerlendirilmesi gereken verileri arasında yer almaktadır. Bu çalışma ile amaçlanan, kavramların tasarım süreçlerine etkisini ve fiziksel olarak mekâna aktarılış biçimlerini metafor yoluyla ortaya koymaktır.
Bu çalışma kapsamında, metafor ve kentsel mekân kavramlarına bu doğrultuda bakılmış ve hem disiplin içi hem de disiplinler arası tanımlar ile kuramsal yaklaşımlara yer verilmiştir. Tanımlar ve kuramsal yaklaşımlar ışığında literatürdeki eksikliği sebebiyle, kentsel tasarım disiplini açısından metaforik tasarım yaklaşımı oluşturulmuş ve kategorize edilmiştir. Kent-metafor ilişkisini irdelemek için çalışma kapsamında kentsel mekâna ait birçok örnek incelenmiştir. Bu ilişkinin her bölgede, her zamanda oluştuğunu tespit edebilmek için örnekler farklı coğrafyalardan ve farklı tarihsel dönemlerden seçilmiştir. Her mekânın tasarım sürecine bakılmış ve tasarıma kaynaklık eden fikirler derinlemesine tartışılmıştır.
Çalışma kapsamında verilen tüm örneklerin içindeki metaforik tasarım fikirleri, uygulamaya geçiriliş biçimlerinin tetkik edilebilmesi için tasarım ilkeleri (nesnel tasarım kriterleri ve tasarım bileşenleri adlı iki başlık altında) bağlamında incelenmiştir. Bu sayede, metafora konu olan kavramsallığın uygulamada mekâna fiziksel olarak yansırken temelde, tasarım ilkelerinin başat unsurları sayesinde aktarıldığı ortaya konmuştur.
Çalışmanın sonucunda, metaforik tasarım yaklaşımının tarihsel sürecin birçok periyodunda kullanıldığı vurgulanmış, kavramların mekâna yansımasındaki en önemli araçlardan biri olduğu belirtilmiştir.
Urban spaces as the place where collective life is embodied are the unique points in which urban people communicate with each other. The urban spaces, addressing the sadness, pain, rebellion or cheerfulness, celebration, exultation, cannot be designed by taking only concrete data into account; Because it features the feeling, it has a past and carries traces. All such abstractions must be included in the data for the evaluation of design space. What is carried out with this study are the effects of concept on design, and their way of physical implementation through metaphor.
Within the scope of this study, the concepts of metaphor and urban space were examined in this direction and both disciplinary and interdisciplinary definitions and theoretical approaches were included. In the light of definitions and theoretical approaches, the metaphorical design approach has been created and categorized in terms of urban design discipline due to its lack in the literature. In order to examine the city-metaphor relationship, many examples of urban space were examined within the scope of the study. In order to determine that this relationship is formed in every region and at all times, samples were selected from different geographies and different historical periods. The design process of each space was examined and the ideas that led to the design were discussed in depth.
The metaphorical design ideas in all the examples given within the scope of the study were examined in the context of objective design criteria in order to examine the way they were put into practice. In this way, a method has been developed on how to process the abstract data (concepts) obtained in the field. The method used to reveal this contribution is to determine the existence and roles of two main concepts (space and metaphor) in each other by means of some variables. In order to search for these symptoms, first of all, multiple definitions of metaphor belonging to different disciplines and approaches were made and its theoretical background was examined. Under the theoretical part, many different classifications are included, emphasizing the diversity of the samples selected within the scope of the study. Then, selected city parts were analyzed and metaphorical design approaches were sought. The metaphorical findings in the spaces were evaluated in the context of objective design criteria and tabulated.
Finally; In the light of all the results obtained, the effects of the concept of metaphor on the design process and its components are discussed. As a result of the study, it was emphasized that the metaphorical design approach was used in many periods of the historical process, and it was stated that it was one of the most important tools in the reflection of the concepts to the space.

11.Reflections of the Migration Process from Camlihemsin Countryside to Russia on Architectural Fabric: Conservation Proposals for the Historical Rural Landscape of Ortan and Yolkiyi
Nur Pamukçu, Koray Güler
doi: 10.14744/tasarimkuram.2022.37167  Pages 150 - 174
Doğu Karadeniz tarihi coğrafyasında konumlanan Çamlıhemşin, sahip olduğu doğal ve kültürel değerleri ile Türkiye’nin önde gelen biyo-kültürel miras alanlarından biridir. Bölge, aralarında endemik türlerin de bulunduğu çok sayıdaki bitki ve hayvan türüne, kale, gözlem noktaları gibi Orta Çağ savunma yapılarına, farklı inançlara ait dini yapılara, tarihi yollara, köprülere ve pek çok geleneksel konuta ev sahipliği yapmaktadır.
Dağlık ve tarım arazileri oldukça kısıtlı olan Doğu Karadeniz coğrafyasında yaşayan Hemşinliler’in geçimlerini sağlamak üzere, 19.yüzyılın ikinci yarısından başlamak üzere Rusya’ya gerçekleştirdiği göç hareketlerinin bölge insanının yaşam çevreleri üzerinde önemli etkileri olmuştur. Göçe konu olan yerleşimlerdeki sivil mimarlık örneklerinde kullanılan yapım tekniği ve malzeme, bölgedeki kırsal mimari geleneğin bir parçası olmakla birlikte yapıların boyut açısından büyüklüğü ve daha gelişkin bir işçilikle inşa edilmiş olmaları ilk bakışta gözden kaçırılabilecek farklılıklardır. Bölgede günümüzde hala varlığını sürdüren bu görkemli konakların ortaya çıkışının ardındaki insan hikayeleri oldukça dikkat çekicidir.
Bu makale, Doğu Karadeniz’deki geleneksel mimariyi; fiziksel doku, yerleşim biçimi, mimari özellikler gibi açılardan ele alan önceki çalışmalarda yeterince üzerinde durulmamış olan somut olmayan mirasın mimari dokuya yansımalarını fiziksel çevre ve ardındaki insan hikayeleri ile birlikte değerlendirerek “tarihi kırsal peyzaj” değerlerinin korunması için öneriler geliştirilmesini hedeflemektedir. Ortan ve Yolkıyı Köyleri odağında yürütülen araştırmada, özellikle göçle ilgili insan hikayelerini anlamak üzere Devlet Arşivleri Başkanlığı Osmanlı Arşivleri’nde yapılan araştırmaların yanı sıra, konak sahiplerinin son kuşak temsilcilerine ulaşılarak, çok sayıda sözlü görüşme ve mimari dokuyu anlamaya yönelik saha çalışmaları gerçekleştirilmiştir. Bu çalışma ile bölgedeki biyo-kültürel mirasın arka planındaki insan hikayelerini ve ilişkilerini de gözetecek şekilde ele alacak gelecekteki farklı çalışmalara katkıda bulunulması umulmaktadır.
Historic rural landscapes and their bio-cultural heritage are rapidly transforming and being lost due to many different reasons such as depopulation, urbanization, environmental problems, and the climate crisis all around the world. Camlihemsin, which is located approximately 40 km away from Rize city center on the Eastern Black Sea coast, has also been negatively affected by this transformation process. Most of the rural settlements in the Eastern Black Sea region have lost their authenticity and integrity values, as is common in Turkey. Contrary to the general tendency in Turkey and World, the historic rural landscape of Ortan and Yolkıyı settlements, which have been comprised of traditional mansions, auxiliary buildings, croplands, orchards, religious buildings, historic paths, water mills, and bridges, have been preserved.
The migration movement of the Hemshinians from the Çamlıhemşin countryside to Russia, which started in the second half of the 19th century, has directly affected the physical structure of the Ortan and Yolkıyı traditional settlements. This article approaches the tangible and intangible values of the historic rural settlements of Ortan and Yolkiyi, which have heritage values that can be considered important on a national scale, with a holistic view. It is possible to read the direct effects of the migration process of the Hemshinians to Russia, in order to make a living, through the traditional fabric that has survived to the present day. Understanding the genius loci of the settlements, comprised of single-story shelters in a forested area in the beginning and transformed by the building of grand mansions related to the income gained from the migration process, will only be possible with a holistic view that will also take into account the human stories and intangible elements in the background. The rural architecture of Ortan and Yolkıyı settlements is a part of the vernacular building culture in the Eastern Black Sea region. So differences in details such as the extraordinary dimensions of the mansions and high quality in wood and stone craftsmanship cannot be noticed at first glance. This study focuses, not only, on the tangible physical characteristics of the historic rural settlements of Ortan and Yolkiyi but also, on the human stories in its background and develops proposals for the sustainable conservation of the bio-cultural heritage of the region.
It is known that the inhabitants of Ortan and Yolkıyı, who had limited arable land and could not earn enough income from agriculture or animal husbandry, migrated from their homeland as early as the second half of the 19th century. This migration, which was initially thought to be temporary and targeted at Russia, has turned to the big cities of Turkey after the First World War, and currently, Ortan and Yolkiyi have become largely depopulated except in the summer months. It is thought that the preservation of the historic landscapes of Yolkıyı and Ortan, which have survived to the present day by preserving their authentic character shaped jointly by humans and nature, depends on a sustainable rural economy and a continuous life. Ensuring the continuity of life in the region depends on increasing the welfare of the people of the region and improving their living conditions.
In addition to the research carried out in the Directorate of State Archives Ottoman Archives to find historical documents, the last generation representatives of the mansion owners and historians who have been studying in this field were reached and numerous oral interviews were conducted in order to understand the human stories related to migration. Also, many field studies were carried out to define the cultural and natural heritage values of the site. Besides the inventory and survey studies for understanding the vernacular architectural character, historic landscape character assessment was carried out through high-resolution aerial photographs obtained by drone. Transformations in the historic rural landscape have been documented by comparing current analyzes with aerial photographs obtained from the General Directorate of Mapping, the oldest of which is from the 1970s.
In order to preserve the “message” behind the cultural and natural heritage, or in other words, the “spirit of the place”, human-oriented studies are needed that will consider the tangible and intangible heritage holistically. In this context, it is hoped that this research will provide important data for future studies that will be carried out with a holistic perspective, not only on the physical remains but also on the intangible elements in the background, for the understanding and sustainable conservation of historical rural landscapes and their bio-cultural heritage.

12.Examination of Urban Space Awareness With 7-11 Years Old Children
Dilara Berk Coşkun, Senem Kaymaz
doi: 10.14744/tasarimkuram.2022.95866  Pages 175 - 196
Kentsel mekânlar yetişkinleri olduğu kadar, çocukları da içerisinde barındırmaktadır. Günümüzde kentsel mekânlar tasarlanırken, çocukların düşünceleri, istek ve ihtiyaçları göz ardı edilebilmektedir. Oysaki çocuklar da, özellikle okul çağına gelmeleriyle birlikte, en az yetişkinler kadar kentle ilişki kurmaya başlamaktadır. Çevreleriyle kurduğu ilişki, gelişimlerini de etkilemektedir. Çocukların kentsel mekânı yetişkinlerden farklı algıladıkları düşünülmektedir. Çalışmada çocukların içinde yaşadıkları kenti nasıl algıladıkları, hangi kentsel elemanların ve yapı tiplerinin ilgilerini çektiği sorgulanmakta ve kentsel mekân farkındalıklarını ortaya koymak amaçlanmaktadır. Bu amaçla Kadıköy’de belirlenen bir güzergâhta 10 çocukla alan çalışması gerçekleştirilmiştir. Çalışmanın kuramsal çerçevesini Gordon Cullen, Kevin Lynch ve Norberg Schulz oluşturmaktadır. Kentsel mekân algısıyla ilgili çalışmaları olan bu üç kuramcı, çocukların kentsel mekân algılarıyla bir arada okunmuştur. Güzergâh boyunca çocukların ilgilerini çeken kentsel elemanları fotoğraflamaları istenmiş ve belirlenen düğüm noktalarında sorular sorulmuştur. Çocuklara sorulan sorular Gordon Cullen’ın ortaya atmış oldukları kavramlardan oluşturulmuştur. Cullen’ın ‘sıralı görüş’ çalışması, çocuklar üzerinden denenmiş ve çocukların çektikleri fotoğraflar birleştirilerek her çocuğun kendi ‘sıralı görüş’ü ortaya konulmuştur. Güzergâhta bulunan kentsel elemanların hangi biçimsel özelliklerinin kentsel mekân farkındalıklarına daha fazla etki ettiği incelenmiş ve sorulara verdikleri cevaplarla birlikte değerlendirilmiştir. Çocukların Kadıköy’de bulunan güzergâhla ilgili düşünceleriyle ilgili çıkarımlar yapılmıştır.
Urban spaces accommodate adults as well as children. Today, when designing urban spaces, children’s thoughts, wishes and needs can be ignored. However, children, especially when they reach school age, start to establish relations with the city at least as much as adults. The relationship they establish with their environment also affects their development. It is thought that children perceive urban space differently from adults. In the study, it is questioned how children perceive the city they live in, which urban elements and building types attract their attention, and it is aimed to reveal their awareness of urban space.
For this purpose, a field study was carried out with 10 children on a determined route in Kadıköy. In the preliminary field trips made to determine the working route, attention was paid to the presence of structures and urban elements consisting of different sizes and functions that could attract the attention of children. The children were asked to examine the urban elements around them and take pictures of the elements that caught their interest as they walked along the route. It was investigated which features of the urban structures and elements determined on the study route were perceived by the children. For this purpose, by examining the nodes on the route, perception criteria such as color, material, scale, perception distance, geometry, relationship with the environment, human density in the area, soil type, singular/adjacent status, public/private use characteristics were determined. The route is divided into 6 nodes and by stopping at these points, questions were asked to the children to understand their perceptions of urban space. The questions asked to the children were formed from 18 concepts selected from Cullen’s book named “Townscape” in the context of the determined perception criteria. A total of 16 questions were formed from these 18 concepts, and these questions were asked to the children at the nodes on the route and their perceptions of urban space were examined.
The theoretical framework of the study consists of Gordon Cullen, Kevin Lynch and Norberg Schulz. These three theorists, who have studies on the perception of urban space, have been read together with children’s perceptions of urban space. Cullen’s
‘serial vision’ study was tested on children and the photographs taken by the children were combined to reveal each child’s own ‘serial vision’. It was examined which formal features of the urban elements on the route had a greater impact on urban space awareness and were evaluated together with the answers they gave to the questions. Inferences were made about the thoughts of the children about the route in Kadıköy. All of the children who came to Kadıköy for the first time became more interested in the urban elements they saw during the trip and took more photographs. The structures with a typology, color and facade that they had not seen before attracted their attention and they did not get bored with the trip. While the children were observing the neighbourhood, they focused on the items that interested them the most. Trees, colorful structures, houses with bay windows and structures with different colors, shapes and sizes than others attracted and perceived their attention more. It has been observed that children who have been on the same streets before are less interested and bored earlier than other children. In the study, it is seen that the children are aware of the changes in the width of the streets, the size and volume differences between the buildings, the front-back situation of the buildings, and the level differences in the streets.
Many factors such as adults’ value judgments, professional deformation or difficulties in life cause losses in urban perceptions. Even if adults live in the city, they often use the city as a transit point, and this often prevents them from being able to observe the city sufficiently. However, children do not attribute meanings to the urban elements around them as adults do, and they can look more objectively. It is necessary to see the city through the eyes of children and not to forget that the city is not only for adults.

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