ISSN: 1302-2636 | E-ISSN: 2757-668X
Journal of Design+Theory - Tasarım Kuram: 18 (37)
Volume: 18  Issue: 37 - 2022
FRONTMATTERS
1.Frontmatters

Pages I - VI

INVITED ARTICLE
2.Academy of Fine Arts Architectural Department’s Drawing Hall: Taut Studio (1938)
Nezih R Aysel
doi: 10.14744/tasarimkuram.2022.28190  Pages 1 - 12
Sanayi-i Nefise Mektebi’nin Fındıklı Çiftesarayı’na yerleşmesi (1926) ile adının Güzel Sanatlar Akademisi olarak değişmesi (1927) ve yeniden yapılanması gerçekleşecek bir dizi reformun habercisidir. Mimarlık Şubesi’ne ilk olarak Prof. Ernst A. Egli’nin getirilmesi ile (1927-36) başlayan mimarlık eğitiminde yenilenme hareketi, tanınmış Alman mimar Bruno Taut’un bu görevi üstlenmesiyle (1936-38) ayrı bir anlam kazanmıştır. Ernst A. Egli’nin Paris Beaux Arts mimarlık eğitimini model alan Sanayi-i Nefise Mektebi mimarlık atölyelerinin olumlu yönlerini dikkate alarak Orta Avrupa’daki Technische Hochshulelerin etkisinde gerçekleştirdiği reform, Bruno Taut’un değerli katkısı ile geliştirilmiş ve GSA Yüksek Mimarlık Bölümü’nde ülke koşullarına ve kuruma özgü bir eğitim programı oluşturulmuştur. Akademi’nin tüm bölümleri için bir gelişme imkânı yaratan Taut döneminde, müfredat ile mekân ilişkisinin kurulması düşüncesi açıkça izlenir. Bu dönemde saray yapısı içinde oluşturulamayacak niteliklerde çağdaş bir çizim atölyesinin, Taut’un eğitim düşüncesinin bir tamamlayıcısı olarak gerçeğe dönüştüğü bilinmektedir. Bu kısa yazı, Akademi Mimarlık Şubesi ilk sınıfları için ana mekâna eklenen ve ‘Taut Atölyesi’ olarak bilinen çizim salonunun izlerini, Bruno Taut’un İstanbul Günlüğü (10.11.1936 - 13.12.1938) üzerinden okumaya çalışıyor.
The settlement of Sanayi-i Nefise School in Fındıklı Twin Palace (1926) and the change of its name to Academy of Fine Arts (1927) and its restructuring heralded a series of reforms. The renewal movement in architectural education, which first started with the introduction of Prof. Ernst A. Egli to the Architecture Branch (1927-36), assumed a different meaning after the wellknown German architect Bruno Taut undertook this task (1936-38). The reform carried out by Ernst A. Egli under the influence of Technische Hochshules in Central Europe, considering the positive aspects of the Sanayi-i Nefise School architectural workshops modelled on Paris Beaux Arts architectural education, was developed with the valuable contribution of Bruno Taut and a training program specific to the country conditions and the institution was created in the Academy of Fine Arts Architecture Department. In the Taut period, which creates a developmental opportunity for all departments of the academy, the idea of establishing a relationship between the curriculum and space is clearly followed. It is known that a contemporary drawing workshop, which could not be created in the palace structure, became a reality as a complement to Taut’s educational idea in this period. This short article tries to follow the traces of the drawing hall known as the ‘Taut Studio’, which was added to the main space for the first classes of the Academy Architecture Department, through Bruno Taut’s Istanbul Journal (10.11.1936 - 13.12.1938).
After Egli period, in addition to the problems that Taut needs to solve regarding the curriculum and staff, a frequently encountered and important issue in the diary is the necessity of making space arrangements in accordance with the renewed curriculum within the Fine Arts Academy Building. The first arrangements made in accordance with the existing curriculum in the wing of the building used by the Department of Architecture must have been made during the Egli period before it. The three-staged planning of the architecture program as preparation, project studios and diploma concourse necessitated a new arrangement in the use of space. The large drawing workshop, which was probably established for the first classes by combining the head sofa with the rooms around, is the first spatial traces of reformist thoughts. Taut imagined the workshop of the first classes in the idea of a modern workshop as an addition to the main building in the harem garden of the palace. He assigns Erich Zimmermann to do this. The drawings that Zimmermann prepared in a very short time are an indication of how important the workshop is for education. The Drawing Hall of the Architecture Branch, known as the Taut Atelier, is built as a rectangular planned addition to the harem garden by the Academy of Fine Arts, leaning against the high wall separating the harem gardens between the Academy of Fine Arts (Cemile Sultan Palace) and the Faculty of Letters (Münire Sultan Palace). The additional workshop, most likely opened in March or April 1938, houses several of the Academy’s exhibitions due to its feature of a large hall. The first exhibition to be opened was the painting exhibition of Leopold Levy. In the hall, the works of Bruno Taut and the student works of the Department of Sculpture under the direction of Rudolf Belling are exhibited at short intervals. Training continued in this period in the Taut Studio (Hall), which was not damaged in the great fire of 1948. The 1948 Diploma Projects Exhibition was opened in the Taut Hall, which can be reached by the roads opened inside the burning building. In the renovation of the building after the fire, the Taut Workshop was preserved and used as a training place until 1970. After the transfer of the Münire Sultan Palace, one of the double palace buildings, to the Academy, a project combining the two buildings was made by Sedad Hakkı Eldem, and during the implementation of the project, the structure known as Taut Workshop was demolished. Today, there is the main library building on the site of the workshop.
Taut, who came to our country in 1936 and brought a new architectural perspective to the Ministry of National Education with his educational building projects in the two years he was in office until his death in 1938, played an important role in the architectural program of the Academy of Fine Arts in this short period of time gaining its unique identity that has survived to the present day with small changes. Taut Workshop, which is the result of the idea of integrating the relationship between space and curriculum, is intellectually transferred to the present day with the large Sofa Hall space referred to as ‘Orta Hol’ in the renovation of Sedad H. Eldem. Although the hall has lost its space, it preserves its place in the memory of the institution and its active role in education as a drawing workshop of the first classes today.

RESEARCH
3.A Methodological Search for Evaluating the Aesthetic Taste Through Furniture Product Sample
Ezgi İlhan, Abdullah Togay, Serkan Güneş, Naz A.G.Z. Börekçi
doi: 10.14744/tasarimkuram.2022.02986  Pages 13 - 28
Tasarım çalışmalarında ürünün başarısını anlayabilmek amacıyla kullanıcı değerlendirmelerine ulaşmak büyük önem taşır. Kullanıcının beğenisini yorumlamak, kullanıcının ürünlere sıfatlar ve puanlar vermesi ile ölçülebilir. Bu çalışma beğeni odaklı ürün tasarımı araştırmalarında, estetik beğeniye dair sıfatların oluşturulması ve değerlendirilmesi için kullanılacak bir yöntem önerisi elde etmeyi hedefler. Araştırma kapsamında, 22 katılımcıdan 33 karşılaştırmalı imaj üzerine toplam 660 değerlendirme ile çoklu mobilya ürün örnekleri üzerinden yorum yapmaları istenmiştir. Katılımcıların tanımlayıcı sıfatları toplanarak repertuvar çizelgesi oluşturulmuş ve bununla ürünlerin beğeni odaklı başarısı toplam 70 değerlendirme üzerinden analiz edilmiştir. Çalışmada kullanıcıların sübjektif olan estetik beğeni değerlendirmesine ulaşabilmek için etkin olabileceği öngörülen tekniklerden ilk olarak repertuvar çizelgesi ve ardından bu çizelgeyle ulaşılan sonuçlara dayalı anlamsal farklılık ölçeğine odaklanılmış, etkinlik düzeyi hedefine ulaşıldığında hangi tekniğin nasıl kullanılması gerektiği açıklanmaya çalışılmıştır. Değerlendirme her iki teknik üzerinden benzer süreçlerin uygulanması ile karşılaştırmalı olarak uygulanmıştır. Yürütülen çalışmalardan 16 sıfat çifti elde edilmiş ve bu sıfatlar kullanılarak nicel analizler için yöntem belirlemek amacıyla ilk etapta repertuvar çizelgesi oluşturulmuştur. Sonuçlar üzerinden elde edilen repertuvar çizelgesinin uygulamasında kullanıcı geri bildirimleri üzerinden ölçeği kavrayamama, kriterlerin iç içe girmesi, puanlamada kriter oluşturamama problemleri görülmüştür. Tasarımdaki estetik beğeninin değerlendirilmesine ilişkin sübjektif bilgi girişine özgün yöntem arayışı anlamsal farklılık ölçeğinin kullanılma süreçlerini ön plana çıkarmıştır. Repertuvar çizelgesi tekniğinde yaşanan olumsuzlukların anlamsal farklılık ölçeği ile giderildiği görülmüş, ürünü değerlendirme süreçleri verimli şekilde tamamlanmış ve gelecekteki benzer çalışmalar için yöntem önerisi olarak sunulmuştur.
Design is a strategic competitive tool with its increasing popularity in an economic, social and cultural context (Can, 2016: 269-270). In order to interpret the aesthetic concern related to user taste, the designer needs information from the user in the process (Bridges, 1986: 7-8). In different studies, it is thought that taste and pleasure are triggered by visual elements in the first place (Tunalı, 2009: 39-46; Kellaris and Kent, 1993: 381-382; Bloch, 1995: 20). For this reason, the study advocates the importance of understanding aesthetic taste for the designer. It includes methods and results regarding user-driven information through making observation and evaluation via a furniture design example with the aim of obtaining information based on aesthetic taste. The background study was fed by the literature related to 1) industrial design and aesthetic taste, and 2) the scales that can be used for the methodological search.
While trying to get the aesthetic taste, the designers may have difficulties in terms of not being able to operate the process correctly or to determine the appropriate scale for qualitative and quantitative analysis, which was seen as a problem for this study. In this context, the study aimed at reaching the implicit taste information of users through their judgments and evaluations related to products.
Focusing on a methodological search, the scales found appropriate for the scope of the study were used for the selected product group in order to derive adjectives and evaluate products concerning product designs. For the experimental studies, user group was determined with a profile who received a design-related education and the studies were conducted with 22 participants between the ages of 20-45. Being a static product group that would let participants to make comparisons in details and possessing a great number of product alternatives, furniture was decided as the focal product group. Stylistic parts and accessories such as legs, seams, trimmings, patterns, materials and colors of the armchair, sofa and chair products were redesigned with minor changes. The images were shown to the participants on a computer screen from the front view. While comparing multiple products with 33 comparative images for the first step of the study, participants produced a total of 660 evaluations related to the aesthetic taste question for each product. For the second step of the study, the scale model was concentrated to find the answer to the search for creating methods for design studies. Primarily, RGT was used to obtain 70 evaluations on images containing 7 single products. At this stage, 10 participants who participated in the first step of the study continued to get deeper information from each of them within RGT. Participants were asked to score the products that they saw on the screen between 1 and 7 points.
All participants (10/10) had a difficulty to comprehend and give points for the grids in this technique, since it has a complicated structure with its two parts including elements (products) and constructs (adjectives). Giving points (6 participants out of 10), evaluating multiple products on the same scale (4/10), long duration of the evaluation (8/10), desire for making comparisons with other products (3/10) and having indecisions (2/10) were the important problems of the participants while completing the scale.
It was observed that the problems experienced through the use of the repertory grid technique were eliminated by the use of the semantic differential scale, and the process completed efficiently. It was more comfortable and easier for the participants to evaluate a single product on the same scale. Marking a place in the range on bipolar adjective structures made participants feel better than giving points. In addition, the scoring logic that made the participants confused during the usage of the repertory grid technique (for example, the problem of perception in the structure of stable and mobile adjectives) ended when they made a mark with the semantic differential scale. Thus, it was presented as a method proposal for similar future studies.
Since understanding the aesthetic taste and evaluating the subjective observations are difficult to achieve for the design discipline, this study can be used as a guide in that context. Collecting product-based adjectives as a result of the participants’ reviews related to products and finding a suitable scale and method for the designer are important contributions of this research.

RESEARCH (THESIS)
4.Effects of Non-Visual Elements On Customer Satisfaction in Furniture Retail
Çisem Oğuzhan, Zeynep Tuna Ultav
doi: 10.14744/tasarimkuram.2022.27676  Pages 29 - 51
Bu çalışmanın amacı, mobilya sektöründe bir vaka çalışması ile çoklu uyarıcıları (görme duyusu hariç) barındıran mağaza iç mekânlarının müşteri memnuniyeti ve müşteri alışveriş davranışları üzerindeki etkilerini belirlemektir. Bu bağlamda, çalışma perakende ortamı özelinde perakendecilik ve iç mekân tasarımı literatürüne katkı sağlamayı amaçlamaktadır. Çalışmada, nitel ve nicel yöntemler bir arada kullanılmıştır. Çalışma; yöntem olarak saha çalışması, gözlemler, fotoğraf çekimleri, anket çalışmaları ve yüz yüze görüşme içermektedir. İşitsel, dokunsal, kokusal ve tatsal uyarıcı tasarım bileşenleri, literatür rehberliğinde belirlenerek, bu bileşenler ile tüketici memnuniyeti arasındaki ilişki ortaya koyulmuştur. Çalışma sonucunda, görsel uyarıcılar hariç, çoklu duyuları uyaran iç mekân tasarım bileşenlerinin mağaza içerisinde oluşan müşteri memnuniyeti ve müşteri alışveriş davranışları üzerinde olumlu bir etkiye sahip olduğu görülmüştür.
Recognizing that atmospheric features affect consumer behavior in the retail industry, companies try to design and shape interiors to influence consumers, and thereby gain a competitive advantage through integrating store design into their marketing strategies. Although visual elements are always the most dominant in store interiors, using other non-visual elements (such as fragrances, music, and texture) together with visual elements can strongly affect the customers’ moods and behaviors.
Each of the factors that affect interior planning and design is a stimulant that sends a message to customers and determines the formation of in-store experiences. Companies can use one or more stimulants together to create these experiences, as well as create store environments that appeal to all senses. Given that customers are generally affected by environmental factors, store atmosphere and the interior elements can influence their choice of store, encourage unplanned purchases, increase their spending, influence their product choices, and lengthen the time they spend in the store. Thus, companies can use store atmosphere to ensure that customers enjoy their shopping experience and leave the store satisfied.
Accordingly, this study aims to determine how multiple stimuli (except for the visual ones) in store interiors determine in-store pleasantness and customer behavior through a case study of the furniture industry. By investigating these retail environments, it aims to contribute to the retailing and interior design literature. The study is aimed on the argument that store environments should be evaluated in terms of every sensory element that comprise them while store environments should be purposively designed to affect customers psychologically and physically. Guided by the relevant literature, the study identified the key auditory, tactile, olfactory, and gustatory design components for the studied retail sector in Turkey.
Regarding the importance of home furniture in interiors and its place in the retail market, Doğtaş was selected as the Turkish furniture company to be studied. In 2014, Doğtaş realized that the design criteria it applied in its stores were problematic. It therefore evaluated this concept and conducted improvement studies on the problems before renovating its stores. The present study used Doğtaş’ store concept change as an opportunity to identify specific interior design elements and their effects on customers. The prediction was that customers who were satisfied with the shopping experience offered by the store environment would make more positive purchasing decisions.
Following a comprehensive literature review of research in marketing, customer behavior, customer satisfaction, retail design, and store atmosphere, the field work was conducted using mixed methods. More specifically, observations, photography, surveys, and face-to-face interviews were applied in seven selected Doğtaş stores. Necessary documents (store plans, institutional architectural guide, statistical data) were obtained from the company’s archive. The face-to-face interview data was analyzed qualitatively while the survey data was subject to statistical analyses and summarized in detailed tables and comments. The questionnaire contained ten questions to determine the relationship between the interior design elements of smell, hearing, touch/feeling, and taste, and customer satisfaction and shopping behaviors. The effects of each element on spatial satisfaction were examined in terms of the concept change introduced by Doğtaş.
The survey, observation, and interview results indicated that Doğtaş’ new store concept made the in-store environment more pleasant, improved the mood of both customers and sales staff, provided a more enjoyable shopping experience, and positively affected customer shopping behaviors. The interviewed customers also indicated that they would consider revisiting the stores and recommend them to others. The new store concept also improved the sales staff’s mood. Customers came closer to the products and spent more time than they realized in the store. The interviews showed that the new interior design components increased the number of unplanned purchases, which in turn had a positive effect on the customers’ shopping experiences.
Overall, this study demonstrated that the customers of this furniture store company noticed and approved of multi-sensory changes to the store interiors that contribute to store atmosphere. These findings can provide guidance regarding which interior design components furniture stores should consider. The analysis revealed that it is important to use multi-sensory design components
(auditory, haptic, olfactory and gustatory) to create appealing store atmospheres that make them more pleasant for customers.

RESEARCH
5.An Examination On the Turkish House Plan Type Without A Sofa
Özge Özeke Eski, Tülay Çobanoğlu
doi: 10.14744/tasarimkuram.2022.70037  Pages 52 - 69
Bu çalışmada, Sedad Hakkı Eldem’in, Türk evlerini sınıflandırmaya yönelik, pek çok çalışmaya öncülük etmiş kapsamlı çalışmasının sonuçlarının ön kabulüyle, Türk Evi’ne ilişkin literatürde arka planda kaldığı gözlenen “Sofasız Plan Tipi”nin işlev, malzeme, kültür bağlamında var olma öyküsü, felsefesi ve sınıflandırma sistematiği içerisindeki yeri üzerine eğilmek amaçlanmaktadır. Çalışmada tanımlama ve sınıflandırma tartışmaları irdelenmiş, Türkiye’deki sofasız Türk Evi plan tipine örnek oluşturan evler taranmıştır. Tarama sonucunda, sofasız plan tipinin geleneksel konutlarla ilgili basılı kaynakların pek çoğunda sınıflandırmaya hiç dâhil edilmediği görülmekle birlikte Ege, Akdeniz, İç Anadolu, Güneydoğu ve Doğu Anadolu bölgelerine ilişkin kaynaklarda rastlanan örnekler; bu tartışmalar bağlamında ve bağımsız olarak incelenerek kendi içinde bir değerlendirme yapılmıştır. Çalışma kapsamında, sofasız plan tipini, Türk Evi’nin modülerliği ve organik gelişimi içerisinde bir birim olarak mı, yoksa bağımsız bir ev tipi olarak mı ele almanın daha uygun olacağı, ya da sofasız plan tipinin sınıflandırma içindeki tiplere “dâhil edilemeyen” evlerin “diğer” başlığı altında toplanmasından ibaret bir tanımlama mı olduğu sorularına yanıt aranmıştır.
Türk evinin ayırt edici özelliklerinin sofasız evlerin birçoğunda bulunmadığı görülmektedir. Türk evinin çok işlevli özerk oda düzeninden kaynaklanan modülerliği de sofasız evlerin çoğunluğunda görülmediğinden bu evler bir birim olarak algılanmamaktadır. Genellikle içinde bulundukları bölgenin en arkaik örneklerini oluşturan sofasız plan tipindeki evler yöreye bağlı olarak çeşitlenmekte, zengin mekân kurgusuna sahip büyük ölçekli örneklere de rastlanabilmektedir. Bu çeşitlilik içerisinde bölgelerin sofasız örneklerinin birbirleriyle ortak noktalarından çok farklı noktalarının bulunması “diğer” başlığını akla getirmektedir.
In this study, with the pre-acknowledgment of the results of Sedad Hakkı Eldem’s comprehensive study on the classification of Turkish houses, which has pioneered many following studies, it is aimed to focus on the story and philosophy of “Plan Type Without Sofa”, which has been in the background in the literature on Turkish Houses, in the context of function, material and culture. The position of the type in the classification system is tried to be explained by means of the examples and major studies related to the subject.
Eldem stated that since the appearance of the Turks in the history scene, their settlements have been greatly diversified, while spreading and founding a number of different states. He narrowed the concept in his “Turkish House Plan Types”, to the houses which were inherited from the Ottoman Empire. Despite this, both definition and classification issues still continue to be discussed in the literature regarding the concept of “Turkish House”. Eldem’s book reflects the national architectural movement which has its interest and inspiration in tradition. The plan matrices in this book were used as a base in many documentation studies examining traditional residential architecture in various towns of Anatolia as a part of architectural education, and within this scope, the “modern character” of these houses was examined. In the Turkish literature, the dominant view is that the climate, building materials, technology, and the culture of the society, are the effects that reveal
“anonymous styles” that cannot be attributed to people as a result of the kneading of environmental effects over time. Due to Eldem’s aforementioned assumption, the main element reflecting those effects and defines the types of Turkish houses ensuring their unity was determined as the “plan” of the main floor, that is, the top floor plan.
In the study, the definition and classification discussions were examined, and the houses that constitute an example of the Turkish House plan type without sofa in Turkey were scanned. As a result of the scanning, it is seen that the plan type without sofa is not even included in the classification in most of the sources related to traditional houses and houses of these type are older and harder to find than the others. Even so few examples of houses without sofa were found in all regions. Samples from South-eastern Anatolia, Eastern Anatolia, Central Anatolia, Aegean, and Mediterranean regions, were analysed both within the context of these discussions or independently, and consequently an evaluation was made.
Within the scope of the study, answers are sought to the questions of whether it would be more appropriate to consider the plan type without sofa as a “unit” in the modularity and organic development of the Turkish House, or as a house type on its own, or whether it is only a definition for the “other” houses which cannot be classified under a heading in the mentioned classification system.
The distinctive features of the Turkish house are not found in most of the houses of plan type without sofa. Since the modularity of the Turkish house stemming from the multifunctional autonomous room layout is also not seen in the majority of houses without sofas, these houses are not perceived as a “unit”. As such, they mostly do not reflect the Ottoman culture.
Houses with plan type without sofa, which generally constitute the most archaic and basic examples of the region they are in, vary depending on the region. Large-scale examples with a rich spatial setup can be found as well. For instance, the tower houses in the Aegean Region, located on the coast, emerged out of a need for defence and protection against dangers from the sea, while Diyarbakir houses without sofa, which exist in a rich space setup with courtyards and iwans, are the result of the warm climate, the production/nutrition processes and the local culture that social life requires separate spaces for men and women in the context of hospitality and intimacy as well. The most developed and rich space setup among houses without sofa is from southeast, however it is not a development pioneered by those in other regions, but independent of them, depending on the region’s own conditions. In this diversity, the fact that the regional examples of houses without sofas have very different points from each other, brings to mind the title of “other” in typology and weakens the idea that plan type without sofa is the “building block” of a modular and organically developing system.

6.Tracing the Lost Urban Space on Historical Maps: Determining the Interaction of Levent Ciftlik (Farm) and Barracks With the Urban Context Between 18th and 20th Centuries
Melih Birik
doi: 10.14744/tasarimkuram.2022.04934  Pages 70 - 95
Makalede, Levent Bölgesi’ne ismini veren ve 18. yüzyıl sonunda dönemin modernleşme politikalarına paralel olarak geliştirilen Levent Çiftliği ve Kışlası’nın mekânsal izlerinin belirlenmesi ve tarihsel süreçte kent bağlamıyla ilişkisinin ortaya konulması amaçlanmıştır. Bu doğrultuda, İstanbul’un tarihsel coğrafyasında stratejik öneme sahip geniş bir alan içerisinde yaygın olarak yerleşmiş Levent Çiftliği ve Kışlası’nın dönemin mekânsal atılımları değerlendirildiğinde farklı odaklarla etkileşim içerisinde olan ve zaman içerisinde eklemlenerek gelişen bir yerleşim kompleksi olduğu belirlenmiştir.
Kentsel bağlamın tanımlanması ve mekânsal saptamalar bir yer tespiti çalışmasından öte, zaman sürecinde kentsel belleğin nasıl değiştiğini ortaya koyan bir süreç analizi olarak ele alınmıştır. Bu kapsamda 18. ve 19. yüzyıllara ait mekânsal bellek izlerinin etkileşimde olduğu odaklar ve bağlantılar saptanarak bu izlerin 20. yüzyılda gerçekleşen mekânsal müdahalelerden nasıl etkilendiği belirlenmiş, yerleşim kompleksinin günümüzde kent içerisinde bulunduğu konum ve farklı ölçeklerde kentsel bağlamla kurduğu ilişki ortaya konulmuştur. İleriki aşamalarda alt ölçekte gerçekleştirilecek morfolojik analizler için gerekli mekânsal bağlam ve çalışma alanı sınırları tanımlanmıştır.
Araştırma yöntemi tarihsel tematik ve modern tekniklerle hazırlanmış haritaların derinlemesine okunması, tarihi haritalar, hava fotoğrafları, planlar ve projelerinin jeo-referanslama yöntemiyle ortak koordinat sisteminde bir araya getirilmesi ve sentezlenen mekânsal verilerin Başbakanlık Osmanlı Arşivi gibi yazılı kaynaklar üzerinden çapraz sorgulanmasına dayanmaktadır. Bu yöntemle farklılaşan ve etkileşim içerisinde olan potansiyel kimlik bölgeleri tanımlanmıştır. Sonuç olarak, Baltalimanı havzası ölçeğinde yapılan değerlendirmelerde, alanın potansiyel kentsel arkeolojik değeri ortaya konulmuş, bununla birlikte farklı bir katman olarak İstanbul’un 1950 ve 1980 yılları arasında kentsel bellekte önemli bir yer tutan modern mahalle uygulamalarıyla bir arada değerlendirilebilmesine yönelik saptamanalar yapılmıştır.
The present article aims to determine the spatial traces of the Levent Ciftlik (Farm) and Barracks in Istanbul, which gave its name to the Levent Region and developed in parallel with the modernization policies of the period at the end of the 18th century, and to reveal the interaction of the settlement complex with the urban context in historical process.
Levent Ciftlik was allocated to the Grand Admiral of the Ottoman fleet Hasan Pasha, who formerly built Kasımpaşa Kalyoncu Barracks in 1793 (Shaw, 1965). Starting with this praxis, the Levent Ciftlik was used as a training ground for the new corps and developed as a military compound. Within the framework of the legal regulations of 1794, which announced the new military order of the Nizam-ı Cedid, the first spatial organization of the barracks were formed in the old farm area. It was built as a complex structure consist of hospitals, schools, workshops, administration buildings, barracks and various social and technical facilities such as mosques, baths, fountains, mills, and infrastructure services. This new military compound created an exemplary settlement model until it was destroyed in the Janissary revolt in 1808. During this period, the Levent Ciftlik and Barracks was seen as the first modern settlement of the new order representing the military modernization of the Ottoman army (Beydilli, 1995).
Although the Levent Farm and Barracks which was constitute a focal point for the city by establishing a strategic relationship with the control of the Bosphorus, gave its name to the region today, its cultural traces contributed to the existing urban identity have been erased. The limited visibility, which can be read through individual structures on the surface is not sufficient to convey the spatial context that existed in the past. Although the compound location was indicated at historical thematic maps, there are limited information about its extensive site coverage and interaction with current urban structure. The lack of correlated information weakens the holistic perception of the cultural heritage value of the Levent Ciftlik and Barracks. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the geography in question with all its natural, structural, social and political qualities together in different scales to understand the transformation process of the spatial context through time. Based on this discourse, presented article focuses on defining the spatial context of the Levent Ciftlik and Barracks within the framework of project outcomes of the university supported research.
The research methodology is based on digitizing and superimposing historical maps on a common platform and determining the interaction of potential archeologic character zones with the existing urban pattern. Historical urban layers showing the spatial transformation process of the settlement complex were analysed in-depth by comparative studies of maps, aerial photographs, plans and projects from different periods. In this context, visual data examined and brought together in a mutual coordinate system through geo-referencing and associated with the current urban structure. Parallel to studies on visual materials, written documents on land use and construction works obtained from the Ottoman archive were analysed and correlated with the historical maps. The location of the settlement complex today and the potential archaeological zones were determined through cross examination of data sets retrieved from visual materials and written documents. Hence, the information needed to guide the next stage of this research to be carried out at subscales for urban morphology studies was revealed.
In conclusion, five potential character zones with potential urban archaeological values were defined according to the spatial evaluations in Baltalimanı basin where the Levent Ciftlik and Barracks was located. This extensive settlement complex developed by articulating over a limited period and destroyed had long affected the spatial identity until 20th century. It is determined that, in the city scale, Levent Ciftlik and Barracks which was interacting with the various nodes such as Kasımpaşa, Pera, Tophane and Baltalimanı, widely settled in a large basin defined by the topographic features and had strategic importance in the historical geography of Istanbul. Considering the defined potential character zones of the Levent Ciftlik and Barracks within the scope of current development plans, the necessity of re-evaluating the structural traces in open public and private spaces in a holistic perspective has been revealed.

REVIEW ARTICLE
7.Biomimetic Thermoregulation in Building Shells
Betül Aydın Yazıoğlu, Semra Arslan Selçuk, Güneş Mutlu Avinç
doi: 10.14744/tasarimkuram.2022.10327  Pages 96 - 110
Yapılı çevrelerdeki enerji tüketiminin büyük bir oranını iklimlendirme sistemleri oluşturmaktadır. Bu nedenle yapı kabuğunun “enerji etkin tasarım” kararları ile elde edilmesi önemlidir. Yapıların kullandığı enerjinin çoğunluğunu oluşturan ısıtma ve soğutma giderleri, iç ortam sıcaklığının, dış ortam sıcaklığının değişmesinden etkilenmeden belirli ve dar bir aralıkta tutulması olarak tanımlanabilecek
“termoregülasyon” ile azaltılabilir. Doğa pek çok konuda olduğu gibi termoregülasyon konusunda da mimarlara geniş bir “veri bankası” sunmaktadır. Doğadaki organizmaların milyarlarca yıl boyunca zorlu koşullarda hayatta kalmak için geliştirdikleri fizyolojik, morfolojik ve davranışsal adaptasyon fikirlerinin mimariye aktarılması fikri bu araştırmanın çıkış noktası olmuştur. Makalede doğadaki organizmaların geliştirdiği termoregülasyon yöntemlerinin yapı kabuklarının termoregülasyonunu sağlamak amacıyla uygulanabilirliği araştırılmış ve tasarımcılara geleneksel tasarım yöntemlerinin dışında yeni bakış açıları kazandırmak hedeflenmiştir. Bu doğrultuda öncelikle doğadaki ısı transfer şekilleri ve organizmaların termoregülasyon sağlama yöntemleri araştırılmıştır. Daha sonra doğadaki canlıların termoregülasyon yöntemlerini taklit ederek tasarlanan mimari yapı kabukları değerlendirilmiştir. Çalışmanın sonucunda, doğadaki canlıların geliştirdiği termoregülasyon yöntemlerinin mimari tasarıma uygulanması ile başarılı sonuçlar alınabileceği, bu sonuçların ancak disiplinler arası çalışmalar ile mümkün olabileceği ve tasarımcıların karşılaştığı termoregülasyon sorunlarına doğanın yenilikçi çözümler önerebileceği görülmüştür.
The construction and use of buildings cover %40 of the overall energy consumption in the world. Cooling and heating costs (to provide thermal comfort to the users) are a massive part of this consumption. The energy-efficient design of the building envelopes, where the communication between the external environment and the interior environment is at its highest, will significantly reduce energy consumption. The best energy-efficient design ideas are hidden in nature that has accumulated knowledge for thousands of years.
Air conditioning systems constitute a large proportion of energy consumption in built environments. For this reason, it is essential to construct the building envelope with “energy efficient design” decisions. Heating and cooling costs, which constitute the majority of the energy used by the buildings, can be reduced by “thermoregulation,” which can be defined as keeping the indoor temperature within a particular and narrow range without being affected by the change in the outdoor temperature. Nature offers architects a significant “data bank” on thermoregulation as on many other subjects. The idea of transferring the physiological, morphological, and behavioral adaptation ideas developed by organisms in nature to survive in harsh conditions for billions of years to the field of architecture has been the starting point of this research.
This paper aims to answer the question: “Can thermoregulation solutions in nature be a source of inspiration for energy-efficient designs in building envelopes where heat gain and heat loss occur the most?” For this purpose, the applicability of thermoregulation methods developed by organisms in nature to provide thermoregulation for building envelopes was investigated. It aimed to provide designers with new perspectives apart from traditional design methods.
Firstly, a literature review on the concepts of thermoregulation and biomimicry was studied. Thermoregulation methods developed by living creatures in nature according to the ambient temperatures they live in were investigated. Afterwards, the concept of biomimicry was examined, and its intersection with architecture was investigated. Five samples designed inspired by living things that developed thermoregulation methods according to various environmental conditions were investigated for fieldwork. Some creatures, which have the same need to keep their internal body temperatures within a specific range, struggle with high temperatures, and some with low temperatures. It has been analyzed how the physiological, morphological, and behavioral adaptations were developed according to the needs of the living things in the examined samples affect the design. The selection of the examined organisms from different climatic regions allowed us to observe the changes in thermoregulation strategies. A table was created by comparing the data obtained, the climatic region in which the living things live, the heat transfer methods they developed, the features they developed to provide heat transfer, and the adaptation methods. It has been examined whether designs inspired by nature while providing thermoregulation in building envelopes reach the goal of energy-efficient design.
As a result of the evaluation, it has been seen that the idea of being inspired by nature, whose biological information pool contains countless solutions, has potential in the discipline of architecture, as in many disciplines. It has been seen that the application of thermoregulation methods of living things in nature in architectural designs with a biomimetic design approach can achieve the energy-efficient design goal of architects. It was concluded that successful results could be obtained by applying the thermoregulation methods developed by living things in nature to architectural design, that these results can only be possible with interdisciplinary studies, and that nature can offer innovative solutions to the thermoregulation problems faced by designers.
The environmental conditions of the architectural product to be designed and the users’ requirements should be well analyzed. Solutions of a correctly analyzed problem to similar problems by living things in nature should be investigated. Integrating solutions produced by nature in building envelope design should be tested using various simulation programs. Billions of living organisms in nature create an unlimited pool of examples with new features waiting to be discovered. This biological information data pool, which nature has accumulated for centuries, contains countless solutions to the problems that designers face or will encounter.

RESEARCH
8.Changes in the locational Organization of Secondary Residences Which Have Become Permanent Residences after Covid-19
Onur Şuta, Sennur Akansel
doi: 10.14744/tasarimkuram.2022.38980  Pages 111 - 132
Bu makalede ikincil (yazlık) konutların, Covid-19 sonrası sürekli yaşanan konutlara dönüşmesi sonucu geçirdikleri mekânsal değişimlerin, konutların mekân organizasyonu üzerindeki etkilerini tespit etmek ve ikincil konut literatürüne katkıda bulunmak amaçlanmıştır. Çalışmada kullanıcıların, konutlarında kendi ihtiyaçlarına yönelik mekânsal değişimler yapabilmesinin, esnek mekân çözümlerine olanak sağlayan planlama ile gerçekleşeceği vurgulanmıştır. Bu amaç doğrultusunda makale kapsamında, dönüşüm geçiren yazlık konut örnekleri seçilmiş, konut sahipleri ile ankete dayalı ampirik soruşturma gerçekleştirilerek öncelikle kullanıcı görüşlerine ve ifadelerine yer verilmiştir. SPSS istatiksel programında kullanılan “Chi Square” testiyle anket analizi, “Space Syntax” (mekânsal dizim) yöntemi ile de konutların mekân analizleri yapılmıştır. Makalenin sonuç bölümünde tüm bulgular, sosyal ve ekonomik bileşenler bağlamında değerlendirilmiştir.
Çalışmanın sonuçları şunları vurgulamaktadır:
Covid-19 pandemisinden sonra, özellikle de aktif iş hayatı sona ermiş ve emekli olmuş yazlık konut sahipleri, kent merkezlerindeki konutlarını terk ederek, daha güvenli buldukları ve merkezden uzak yerleşimlerde yer alan konutlarına yerleşmişlerdir. Çoğu iş sektörünün, uzaktan çalışabilme imkanının olması, eğitimde online sürece geçiş, kalıcı konuta dönüşen yazlık konut sayısını artırmıştır. Yazlık konutların kullanım süresinin ve amacının değişmesi, kullanıcı ihtiyacının da değişmesine neden olmuştur. Konutları ihtiyaçlarına yetersiz gelen kullanıcılar, kendi buldukları çözümler ile konutun yeni kimliğine adaptasyonunu sağlamışlardır. Dönüşüm sonrasında konutun mekân organizasyonu değişmiştir. Yazlık konutların tüm yıl içinde yaşanan konutlara dönüşmesinin kullanıcının yaşı, mesleği, ekonomik durumu ile ilişkisi bulunmuştur. Konutun, değişen yaşam koşullarına adaptasyonunun sağlanması, esnek mekân çözümlerinin hâkim olduğu tasarımların yapılması hem kullanıcı memnuniyeti açısından hem de içinde bulunduğumuz Covid-19 pandemisinde mekân üretimi açısından önemli ve gereklidir.
The Covid-19 pandemic, which has influenced the whole world, has caused business areas to switch to the remote working model and the education to turn into distance education. Summer home owners and retirees with the opportunity to work from home have left their crowded city centers and residences and settled permanently in their summer residences in coastal areas. The summer houses, which have been transformed into permanent residences, have been insufficient for the spatial needs of the user and have not been able to meet their expectations from the residence. House owners have made spatial changes in line with their preferences in order to find a solution to this problem. The present article aims to seek an answer to the question of how the spatial changes they have undergone after the transformation of the summer cottages into permanent residences have changed the spatial organization of the residence. In this way, it is aimed to contribute to the secondary (summer) housing literature by evaluating the changing spatial organization of summer houses in the context of social and economic components. Other questions of the study that remain unanswered are: Is the conversion related to the demographic information of the user? In addition, what should be the design principles that the architect should observe in future summer house designs? In order to find answers to all these questions; First of all, during the field study, a survey was conducted with the users and their personal opinions were reported in face-to-face interviews. The survey results were evaluated with the SPSS statistical analysis program. Spatial analyzes of the changed spaces were carried out with the Space Syntax method.
The study area is the Güzelyalı and Dardanos towns of Çanakkale, which are the cities with the highest number of summer residences, living in big city centers after the Covid-19 pandemic, thanks to the transportation facilitated by the implementation of the 1915 Çanakkale Bridge. The most crowded sites in the towns in winter were learned from local administrations and real estate consultants, and a survey was conducted with 147 homeowners in 3 sites. When the results are evaluated, it has been determined that 76 residences have been converted into permanent residences. The biggest reason for the transformation in the residences, which are mostly retirees between the ages of 56-60 as homeowners, has been the Covid-19 pandemic. As a change in their residences, the users used it as a warehouse by covering the bottom of the stairs at the highest rate, and they turned their balconies on the ground and normal floors into closed spaces. As a result of the statistical analyzes, the fact that the users whose residences have been transformed are mostly retired homeowners over the age of 56, has shown that there is a relationship between the age and occupation of the user and the transformation. Turning it into a warehouse by closing the bottom of the stairs among the spatial changes in the houses resulted from the inadequacy of the usage area of the house and especially the kitchen. Likewise, balconies, kitchens and rooms were closed because they were insufficient. In the syntactic analysis, increases or decreases were observed in depth, connectivity and integration values according to the spatial changes made in the plan scheme of each house. In the evaluation of the findings, what these numerical changes mean for the user is evaluated.
After the Covid-19 pandemic, the interventions made by the user in order to adapt her summer residence to a permanent residence were solutions that met her needs, but negatively affected the facade and zoning order and caused additional costs. In addition, as a result of these unconscious interventions by each user, houses with architectural characters that are incompatible with each other and their surroundings have emerged. When evaluated holistically, housing silhouettes were encountered that distorted the texture. In order for the residence to respond to the changing user needs depending on the living conditions, the spaces must be planned in a way that allows transformation during the design phase. This study, which is specific to the transformation of summer houses used only in the summer season of the year, into permanent residences, has shown the importance of flexible space solutions in planning. The fact that the spaces are designed in a flexible way, that they can grow, shrink, divide, open and close, is a situation that increases the comfort and satisfaction of the user in her residence. The characteristic and unique architectural formation and spatial organization of the summer residence can be preserved by planning with a flexible space understanding. On the other hand, by increasing the social communication between the residence and the user and the interaction of the user with the space, architectural sustainability is ensured in economic terms.

9.An Investigation of Construction Permit and Building Use Permit Processes in Municipalities: A Mutual Interview Study
Murat Aydın
doi: 10.14744/tasarimkuram.2022.26121  Pages 133 - 151
Yapı üretim süreci yapımın gerçekleştirileceği yerin doğru seçiminden başlayarak, doğru tasarım ve projelendirme, doğru malzeme üretimi ve kullanımı, doğru denetleme ve uygulamasına kadar uzanan bir süreçtir. Yapı üretim sürecine doğrudan katkı sağlayan mal sahibi, tasarım ve yapım ekibi ile birlikte pek çok kurum ve kuruluş da süreci dışarıdan etkilemektedir. Yapı üretim sürecini yöneten, düzenleyen ve denetleyen kurumlardan birisi de yerel yönetimlerdir. Yapı üretim sürecinde önemli görevleri olan belediyeler, yetki ve faaliyet alanlarının genişliği ve bütçe oranları ile yerel yönetimler içerisinde daha ön plana çıkmaktadır.
Belediyeler, belediye ve mücavir alan sınırları içindeki alanlarda yapı üretim sürecinin çeşitli aşamalarında görev alarak imar kurallarına ve bina yönetmeliklerine uygun uygulamaların gerçekleştirilmesinde önemli bir role sahiptir. Belediyelerin yapı üretim sürecindeki görevleri, Planlı Alanlar İmar Yönetmeliği’nde detay bir şekilde açıklanmıştır. Bu yönetmeliğe göre, özel sektörde faaliyet gösteren ve mal sahibi adına yapım hizmetlerini gerçekleştiren yüklenici inşaat firmalarının bina projelerini inşa edebilmeleri için projeye ait bazı izinlerini ilgili belediyelerden almaları zorunlu kılınmıştır. İnşaat sürecinin başlaması için gerekli olan Yapı Ruhsatı ve inşaat sürecinin bitmesiyle oturma izni için gereken Yapı Kullanma İzni, bu izinler arasında en önemlilerinden ikisidir.
Bu çalışmada İstanbul’daki belediyeler tarafından verilen yapı ruhsatı ve yapı kullanma izni süreçlerinin genel durumunun ortaya konması için Üsküdar, Ataşehir, Kadıköy, Beşiktaş, Şişli ve Zeytinburnu Belediyelerinin her iki süreçte görev alan personeliyle karşılıklı görüşmeler yapılmıştır. Her iki süreçte yer alan ekiplerin durumu belirlenmiş, süreçlerin iş akış şemaları oluşturulmuştur. Süreçlerde karşılaşılan sorunlar ve sorunlara yönelik çözüm önerileri analizi edilmiştir.
The regulation in which the task definitions of municipalities are drawn is the Turkish Planned Areas Zoning Regulation in the building production process in Turkey. The regulation aims to determine the standards of a building according to plans, science, health, and sustainable environmental conditions. Relevant authorities’ crucial task in the regulation is to give project permits following regulation to contractors operating in the Turkish private sector to build construction projects appropriately. Among the permits required from the relevant authorities are the Construction Permit (required for the start of the construction project) and the Building Use Permit (which is required for the residence permit after completion of the construction project). All of the buildings are audited throughout the process by the public and some statutory auditing tools. Many of these audits are known to be carried out by local governments. However, it has been revealed in many studies that there is no standard in the date of legal inspection processes by municipalities, and different municipalities inspect differently.
In this study, mutual interviews were held with the personnel responsible for the construction permit and the building use permit processes in Uskudar, Atasehir, Kadikoy, Besiktas, Sisli, and Zeytinburnu municipalities (all of which have a higher population and housing density than many other districts in Istanbul) to determine the teams’ status in both processes, to create the workflow charts of these processes, to analyze the problems in the processes, and to give solutions to the problems. Nine mutual interviews with six different municipalities were recorded with the permission of the personnel working in the Zoning and Urban Planning Directorate and the Building Control Directorate. The mutual interview method was applied with the municipal personnel involved in the construction permit and the building use permit processes in this study. The mutual interview is a data collection technique through verbal communication. This method is generally done face-to-face. The basis of the mutual interview is based on the mutual conversation of two parties. Therefore, there are at least two parties in this method. One of them is the interviewer, and the other is the interviewee (source person). The interviewer asks the questions with the permission of the interviewee. Then, he/she completes the interview by recording the answers of the interviewee.
This study conducted nine mutual interviews with Uskudar, Atasehir, Kadikoy, Besiktas, Sisli, and Zeytinburnu Municipalities to present the general situation of the construction permit and the building use permit processes by the municipalities in Istanbul. The municipalities do not have information about the academic and private-sector studies that minimize the problems encountered in the construction permit and building use permit processes, facilitate the processes, and ensure standardization of processes. They want to support innovative studies at technical universities both financially and technically. It will be beneficial for Turkey to integrate the digital archive work with a single package of software, create solutions for municipalities in Istanbul, and then use it throughout Turkey. The construction permit process is completed in an average of 24 days, and the building use permit process is completed in an average of 50 days. The lack of a standard for the process steps of the construction permit and the building use permit, causing problems for the project stakeholders due to the process steps, different implementations of the process steps by the municipalities, loss of time due to the repetitive processes, loss of environmental waste, and cost losses are common problems encountered in all municipalities. Municipalities require the transition to a legal electronic document management system. It has been proposed to prepare and implement a new regulation that re-handles, standardizes, and updates the construction permit and building use permit processes. At the end of the mutual interviews, valuable comments were put forward as part of the additional answers given to the questions by the municipality personnel. It will be beneficial for the municipality personnel to update themselves and follow the current regulations if the regulations undergo a few changes. For this reason, most of the problems will be solved with the innovative studies supported by the Ministry of Environment and Urbanization in Turkey.

RESEARCH (THESIS)
10.Evaluation of Out-Of-Function Urban Industrial Heritage Areas in Terms of Adaptive Reuse: The Case of Sakarya Donatim Park
Melike Nur Saraylı, İsmail Hakkı Demir
doi: 10.14744/tasarimkuram.2022.25901  Pages 152 - 170
Göçebe yaşantıdan tarım uygarlığına geçiş aşamasından sonra toplumların yaşam ve kültürlerinde köklü bir değişim etkisi olan Endüstri Devrimi döneminin üretim yerleşkeleri, iki asrı aşkın süredir kentsel yapılaşmada belirgin değişikliklerin kaynağı olmuşlardır. Geçtiğimiz yüzyılda yeniliğin ve gelişimin sembolü olarak görülen, günümüzde orijinal işlevlerini yitirdikleri için terk edilmiş bu yapıların, yıkılarak ortadan kaldırılmaları yerine, “Uyarlanabilir Yeniden Kullanım” yaklaşımıyla kültürel miras olarak değerlendirilmeleri uygulamasına gidilmektedir. Çalışmada, 1944 yılında Sakarya’da Ziraat Aletleri ve Makineleri Fabrikası olarak kurulan ve 1999 Marmara Depremi sonrası tasfiye sürecinde üretimi durdurulan, ancak yapısal özelliklerini korudukları için yıkılmayıp, günümüzde Donatım Park adıyla rekreasyon alanına dönüştürülen eski fabrika sahasındaki yapılar seçilmiştir. Kocaeli Kültür Varlıklarını Koruma Bölge Kurulu’nca tescil edilen yapılar, rekreasyon alanı fonksiyonuna uygun olarak restore edilmiş, bu yapılar dışında bu konsepte yönelik yeni programlar da uygulanmıştır. Çalışma yönteminde, yeniden işlevlendirme kriterlerinin sınanabildiği 7 adet tescilli örneklem yapı seçilmiş, bu yapıların mekânsal özellikleri, orijinal tasarım, kullanım, değişim, geçici kullanım ve yeniden işlevlendirme aşamalarını içeren yaşam döngüleri bağlamında ele alınmıştır. İkinci aşamada, bu yapılardaki mekânsal müdahalelere ilişkin, koruma alanında yayımlanmış öncü tüzüklerin ilgili metinlerinin örneklem alan içerisindeki uygulanabilirlikleri, İçerik Analiz (Content Analysis) yöntemiyle sınanmış, endüstri mirası konusunda uluslararası standartlarda belirlenebilecek hedeflerin yedi başlık altında yoğunlaştığı tespit edilmiştir: (i) Mekânın kendisi, (ii) Mekânın dokusu, (iii) Mekânın yerleşimi, (iv) Mekânın kullanımı, (v) Mekânın çağrışımları/anlamları, (vi) Mekânın kayıtları, (vii) Yerler/Nesneler. Bu başlıklar ve ilgili tüzük açıklamalardan çıkarsama yoluyla 7 adet yeniden işlevlendirme kriteri saptanmış, örneklem yapıların herbiri, belirlenen kriterlere ve çağdaş gündelik yaşam pratiklerine yönelik formel ve deneyimsel etkiler açısından değerlendirilmeye çalışılmıştır.
After the transition from nomadic life to agricultural civilization, the production settlements of the Industrial Revolution period, which transformed the lives and cultures of societies, have been the source of significant changes in urban structuring for more than two centuries. These structures, which were seen as a symbol of innovation and development in the past century, and which have been abandoned because they have lost their original functions, are evaluated with the “Adaptive Reuse” approach as a cultural heritage, instead of demolishing new constructions in the areas where they are located.
Within this framework in mind, questioning whether industrial heritage buildings and the same structural shells can be adapted to a current spatial program and organization has formed the research problem of the study. The aim of this study is to examine the approach applied for the sample within the scope of the original project of the building and the restoration project for the adaptive reuse of idle industrial buildings as mixed-use recreational urban spaces. In the restoration process in question, the nature of the interventions and spatial transformations made to the “shell” structures within the scope of adaptation to possible new functions constituted the primary discussion. Examining the potentials and limitations of the buildings, which are examples of an urban park application in which a mixed-use strategy is adopted, in the context of the city constituted the secondary discussion.
In the study, Donatım Park buildings, which were established as Agricultural Tools and Machinery Factory in Sakarya in 1944, whose production was stopped after the 1999 Marmara Earthquake, but which were not demolished during the extensive demolition work because they preserved their structural features, were selected as a recreation area today. The buildings registered by the Kocaeli Cultural Heritage Preservation Regional Board have been restored in accordance with the urban park area function, and new program proposals have been developed for this concept, apart from the buildings protected within the campus. In the study method flow, 7 proprietary sample buildings were selected, where the refunctioning criteria could be clearly tested, and the spatial characteristics of these structures. The original design is discussed in the context of life cycles, which includes the stages of use, change, temporary use and reuse. In the second stage, the Content Analysis method was used to test the applicability of the texts of the pioneering regulations published in the field of conservation, which offer certain classifications, in the sample area in order to evaluate the spatial interventions in the reused buildings, and it was observed that the objectives that should be determined in international standards on industrial heritage were concentrated under seven headings: ( i) The space itself, (ii) The texture of the space, (iii) The layout of the space, (iv) The use of the space, (v) The connotations/meanings of the space, (vi) The records of the space, (vii) Places/Objects. As a result of the interpretation of these titles and the relevant regulation explanations, 7 refunctioning criteria were determined by inference, and each of the sample structures was tried to be evaluated in terms of formal and experiential effects on the determined criteria and contemporary daily life practices.
The method-specific analysis types developed in the article throughout the research are systematic literature research (primary/secondary source and project records from architectural websites), archive scanning (written/visual data from the relevant municipalities about the sample area), site/site visit and research (on-site observation, photography). and documentation), the analysis of the industrial transformation project (based on re-functionality criteria, starting from the lead bylaws). In relation to the different written/visual data types obtained during the analysis, 7 refunctioning criteria were determined. It has been tried to determine to what extent the 7 registered structures studied within the scope of the sample area meet these criteria. In this determination, triple variables rated from high agreement to low agreement and expressed as “appropriate”, “partially appropriate”, “not suitable” were used.
Within the scope of the study findings, it is seen that heritage structures are considered as a “shell” in the adaptive reuse approach, where certain internal transformations are experienced for the interventions required by new and different programs. Therefore, it can be said that an understanding reduced to formality has been adopted in the evaluation of industrial heritage. At this point, although the Sakarya Donatım Park transformation project cannot find an answer as an accepted practice in many aspects in the conservation culture, the structure and transformation process will be examined due to the partial protection of the heritage in the selected area. It has been damaged before (by earthquake) and the building has been re-evaluated in terms of social benefit in the city. Because, rather than the final function of the sample area, it was found worth examining the transformation process and the practical aspects of the interventions.

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