ISSN: 1302-2636 | E-ISSN: 2757-668X
Tracing the Lost Urban Space on Historical Maps: Determining the Interaction of Levent Ciftlik (Farm) and Barracks With the Urban Context Between 18th and 20th Centuries [Tasarım Kuram]
Tasarım Kuram. 2022; 18(37): 70-95 | DOI: 10.14744/tasarimkuram.2022.04934

Tracing the Lost Urban Space on Historical Maps: Determining the Interaction of Levent Ciftlik (Farm) and Barracks With the Urban Context Between 18th and 20th Centuries

Melih Birik
Mimar Sinan Fine Arts University, Faculty of Architecture, Department of City and Regional Planning, Istanbul, Türkiye

The present article aims to determine the spatial traces of the Levent Ciftlik (Farm) and Barracks in Istanbul, which gave its name to the Levent Region and developed in parallel with the modernization policies of the period at the end of the 18th century, and to reveal the interaction of the settlement complex with the urban context in historical process.
Levent Ciftlik was allocated to the Grand Admiral of the Ottoman fleet Hasan Pasha, who formerly built Kasımpaşa Kalyoncu Barracks in 1793 (Shaw, 1965). Starting with this praxis, the Levent Ciftlik was used as a training ground for the new corps and developed as a military compound. Within the framework of the legal regulations of 1794, which announced the new military order of the Nizam-ı Cedid, the first spatial organization of the barracks were formed in the old farm area. It was built as a complex structure consist of hospitals, schools, workshops, administration buildings, barracks and various social and technical facilities such as mosques, baths, fountains, mills, and infrastructure services. This new military compound created an exemplary settlement model until it was destroyed in the Janissary revolt in 1808. During this period, the Levent Ciftlik and Barracks was seen as the first modern settlement of the new order representing the military modernization of the Ottoman army (Beydilli, 1995).
Although the Levent Farm and Barracks which was constitute a focal point for the city by establishing a strategic relationship with the control of the Bosphorus, gave its name to the region today, its cultural traces contributed to the existing urban identity have been erased. The limited visibility, which can be read through individual structures on the surface is not sufficient to convey the spatial context that existed in the past. Although the compound location was indicated at historical thematic maps, there are limited information about its extensive site coverage and interaction with current urban structure. The lack of correlated information weakens the holistic perception of the cultural heritage value of the Levent Ciftlik and Barracks. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the geography in question with all its natural, structural, social and political qualities together in different scales to understand the transformation process of the spatial context through time. Based on this discourse, presented article focuses on defining the spatial context of the Levent Ciftlik and Barracks within the framework of project outcomes of the university supported research.
The research methodology is based on digitizing and superimposing historical maps on a common platform and determining the interaction of potential archeologic character zones with the existing urban pattern. Historical urban layers showing the spatial transformation process of the settlement complex were analysed in-depth by comparative studies of maps, aerial photographs, plans and projects from different periods. In this context, visual data examined and brought together in a mutual coordinate system through geo-referencing and associated with the current urban structure. Parallel to studies on visual materials, written documents on land use and construction works obtained from the Ottoman archive were analysed and correlated with the historical maps. The location of the settlement complex today and the potential archaeological zones were determined through cross examination of data sets retrieved from visual materials and written documents. Hence, the information needed to guide the next stage of this research to be carried out at subscales for urban morphology studies was revealed.
In conclusion, five potential character zones with potential urban archaeological values were defined according to the spatial evaluations in Baltalimanı basin where the Levent Ciftlik and Barracks was located. This extensive settlement complex developed by articulating over a limited period and destroyed had long affected the spatial identity until 20th century. It is determined that, in the city scale, Levent Ciftlik and Barracks which was interacting with the various nodes such as Kasımpaşa, Pera, Tophane and Baltalimanı, widely settled in a large basin defined by the topographic features and had strategic importance in the historical geography of Istanbul. Considering the defined potential character zones of the Levent Ciftlik and Barracks within the scope of current development plans, the necessity of re-evaluating the structural traces in open public and private spaces in a holistic perspective has been revealed.

Keywords: Levent Ciftlik and Barracks, urban form, urban memory, historical maps, cultural heritage.

Tarihi Haritalar Üzerinden Kayıp Kentsel Mekânın İzini Sürmek: Levent Çiftliği ve Kışlası’nın 18. ve 20. Yüzyıllar Arasında Kentsel Bağlamla Etkileşiminin Belirlenmesi

Melih Birik
Mimar Sinan Güzel Sanatlar Üniversitesi Mimarlık Fakültesi, Şehir ve Bölge Planlama Bölümü, İstanbul, Türkiye

Makalede, Levent Bölgesi’ne ismini veren ve 18. yüzyıl sonunda dönemin modernleşme politikalarına paralel olarak geliştirilen Levent Çiftliği ve Kışlası’nın mekânsal izlerinin belirlenmesi ve tarihsel süreçte kent bağlamıyla ilişkisinin ortaya konulması amaçlanmıştır. Bu doğrultuda, İstanbul’un tarihsel coğrafyasında stratejik öneme sahip geniş bir alan içerisinde yaygın olarak yerleşmiş Levent Çiftliği ve Kışlası’nın dönemin mekânsal atılımları değerlendirildiğinde farklı odaklarla etkileşim içerisinde olan ve zaman içerisinde eklemlenerek gelişen bir yerleşim kompleksi olduğu belirlenmiştir.
Kentsel bağlamın tanımlanması ve mekânsal saptamalar bir yer tespiti çalışmasından öte, zaman sürecinde kentsel belleğin nasıl değiştiğini ortaya koyan bir süreç analizi olarak ele alınmıştır. Bu kapsamda 18. ve 19. yüzyıllara ait mekânsal bellek izlerinin etkileşimde olduğu odaklar ve bağlantılar saptanarak bu izlerin 20. yüzyılda gerçekleşen mekânsal müdahalelerden nasıl etkilendiği belirlenmiş, yerleşim kompleksinin günümüzde kent içerisinde bulunduğu konum ve farklı ölçeklerde kentsel bağlamla kurduğu ilişki ortaya konulmuştur. İleriki aşamalarda alt ölçekte gerçekleştirilecek morfolojik analizler için gerekli mekânsal bağlam ve çalışma alanı sınırları tanımlanmıştır.
Araştırma yöntemi tarihsel tematik ve modern tekniklerle hazırlanmış haritaların derinlemesine okunması, tarihi haritalar, hava fotoğrafları, planlar ve projelerinin jeo-referanslama yöntemiyle ortak koordinat sisteminde bir araya getirilmesi ve sentezlenen mekânsal verilerin Başbakanlık Osmanlı Arşivi gibi yazılı kaynaklar üzerinden çapraz sorgulanmasına dayanmaktadır. Bu yöntemle farklılaşan ve etkileşim içerisinde olan potansiyel kimlik bölgeleri tanımlanmıştır. Sonuç olarak, Baltalimanı havzası ölçeğinde yapılan değerlendirmelerde, alanın potansiyel kentsel arkeolojik değeri ortaya konulmuş, bununla birlikte farklı bir katman olarak İstanbul’un 1950 ve 1980 yılları arasında kentsel bellekte önemli bir yer tutan modern mahalle uygulamalarıyla bir arada değerlendirilebilmesine yönelik saptamanalar yapılmıştır.

Anahtar Kelimeler: Levent Çiftliği ve Kışlası, Kent formu, kent belleği, tarihi haritalar, kültürel miras.

Melih Birik. Tracing the Lost Urban Space on Historical Maps: Determining the Interaction of Levent Ciftlik (Farm) and Barracks With the Urban Context Between 18th and 20th Centuries. Tasarım Kuram. 2022; 18(37): 70-95

Corresponding Author: Melih Birik, Türkiye
Manuscript Language: Turkish
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