ISSN: 1302-2636 | E-ISSN: 2757-668X
Changes in the locational Organization of Secondary Residences Which Have Become Permanent Residences after Covid-19 [Tasarım Kuram]
Tasarım Kuram. 2022; 18(37): 111-132 | DOI: 10.14744/tasarimkuram.2022.38980

Changes in the locational Organization of Secondary Residences Which Have Become Permanent Residences after Covid-19

Onur Şuta, Sennur Akansel
Trakya University Faculty of Architecture, Department of Architecture, Edirne, Türkiye

The Covid-19 pandemic, which has influenced the whole world, has caused business areas to switch to the remote working model and the education to turn into distance education. Summer home owners and retirees with the opportunity to work from home have left their crowded city centers and residences and settled permanently in their summer residences in coastal areas. The summer houses, which have been transformed into permanent residences, have been insufficient for the spatial needs of the user and have not been able to meet their expectations from the residence. House owners have made spatial changes in line with their preferences in order to find a solution to this problem. The present article aims to seek an answer to the question of how the spatial changes they have undergone after the transformation of the summer cottages into permanent residences have changed the spatial organization of the residence. In this way, it is aimed to contribute to the secondary (summer) housing literature by evaluating the changing spatial organization of summer houses in the context of social and economic components. Other questions of the study that remain unanswered are: Is the conversion related to the demographic information of the user? In addition, what should be the design principles that the architect should observe in future summer house designs? In order to find answers to all these questions; First of all, during the field study, a survey was conducted with the users and their personal opinions were reported in face-to-face interviews. The survey results were evaluated with the SPSS statistical analysis program. Spatial analyzes of the changed spaces were carried out with the Space Syntax method.
The study area is the Güzelyalı and Dardanos towns of Çanakkale, which are the cities with the highest number of summer residences, living in big city centers after the Covid-19 pandemic, thanks to the transportation facilitated by the implementation of the 1915 Çanakkale Bridge. The most crowded sites in the towns in winter were learned from local administrations and real estate consultants, and a survey was conducted with 147 homeowners in 3 sites. When the results are evaluated, it has been determined that 76 residences have been converted into permanent residences. The biggest reason for the transformation in the residences, which are mostly retirees between the ages of 56-60 as homeowners, has been the Covid-19 pandemic. As a change in their residences, the users used it as a warehouse by covering the bottom of the stairs at the highest rate, and they turned their balconies on the ground and normal floors into closed spaces. As a result of the statistical analyzes, the fact that the users whose residences have been transformed are mostly retired homeowners over the age of 56, has shown that there is a relationship between the age and occupation of the user and the transformation. Turning it into a warehouse by closing the bottom of the stairs among the spatial changes in the houses resulted from the inadequacy of the usage area of the house and especially the kitchen. Likewise, balconies, kitchens and rooms were closed because they were insufficient. In the syntactic analysis, increases or decreases were observed in depth, connectivity and integration values according to the spatial changes made in the plan scheme of each house. In the evaluation of the findings, what these numerical changes mean for the user is evaluated.
After the Covid-19 pandemic, the interventions made by the user in order to adapt her summer residence to a permanent residence were solutions that met her needs, but negatively affected the facade and zoning order and caused additional costs. In addition, as a result of these unconscious interventions by each user, houses with architectural characters that are incompatible with each other and their surroundings have emerged. When evaluated holistically, housing silhouettes were encountered that distorted the texture. In order for the residence to respond to the changing user needs depending on the living conditions, the spaces must be planned in a way that allows transformation during the design phase. This study, which is specific to the transformation of summer houses used only in the summer season of the year, into permanent residences, has shown the importance of flexible space solutions in planning. The fact that the spaces are designed in a flexible way, that they can grow, shrink, divide, open and close, is a situation that increases the comfort and satisfaction of the user in her residence. The characteristic and unique architectural formation and spatial organization of the summer residence can be preserved by planning with a flexible space understanding. On the other hand, by increasing the social communication between the residence and the user and the interaction of the user with the space, architectural sustainability is ensured in economic terms.

Keywords: Covid-19, secondary (summer) residence, space syntax, flexible design, change-transformation in housing.

Covid-19 Sonrası Kalıcı Konutlara Dönüşen İkincil (Yazlık) Konutların Mekân Organizasyonundaki Değişimi

Onur Şuta, Sennur Akansel
Trakya Üniversitesi Mimarlık Fakültesi, Mimarlık Bölümü, Edirne, Türkiye

Bu makalede ikincil (yazlık) konutların, Covid-19 sonrası sürekli yaşanan konutlara dönüşmesi sonucu geçirdikleri mekânsal değişimlerin, konutların mekân organizasyonu üzerindeki etkilerini tespit etmek ve ikincil konut literatürüne katkıda bulunmak amaçlanmıştır. Çalışmada kullanıcıların, konutlarında kendi ihtiyaçlarına yönelik mekânsal değişimler yapabilmesinin, esnek mekân çözümlerine olanak sağlayan planlama ile gerçekleşeceği vurgulanmıştır. Bu amaç doğrultusunda makale kapsamında, dönüşüm geçiren yazlık konut örnekleri seçilmiş, konut sahipleri ile ankete dayalı ampirik soruşturma gerçekleştirilerek öncelikle kullanıcı görüşlerine ve ifadelerine yer verilmiştir. SPSS istatiksel programında kullanılan “Chi Square” testiyle anket analizi, “Space Syntax” (mekânsal dizim) yöntemi ile de konutların mekân analizleri yapılmıştır. Makalenin sonuç bölümünde tüm bulgular, sosyal ve ekonomik bileşenler bağlamında değerlendirilmiştir.
Çalışmanın sonuçları şunları vurgulamaktadır:
Covid-19 pandemisinden sonra, özellikle de aktif iş hayatı sona ermiş ve emekli olmuş yazlık konut sahipleri, kent merkezlerindeki konutlarını terk ederek, daha güvenli buldukları ve merkezden uzak yerleşimlerde yer alan konutlarına yerleşmişlerdir. Çoğu iş sektörünün, uzaktan çalışabilme imkanının olması, eğitimde online sürece geçiş, kalıcı konuta dönüşen yazlık konut sayısını artırmıştır. Yazlık konutların kullanım süresinin ve amacının değişmesi, kullanıcı ihtiyacının da değişmesine neden olmuştur. Konutları ihtiyaçlarına yetersiz gelen kullanıcılar, kendi buldukları çözümler ile konutun yeni kimliğine adaptasyonunu sağlamışlardır. Dönüşüm sonrasında konutun mekân organizasyonu değişmiştir. Yazlık konutların tüm yıl içinde yaşanan konutlara dönüşmesinin kullanıcının yaşı, mesleği, ekonomik durumu ile ilişkisi bulunmuştur. Konutun, değişen yaşam koşullarına adaptasyonunun sağlanması, esnek mekân çözümlerinin hâkim olduğu tasarımların yapılması hem kullanıcı memnuniyeti açısından hem de içinde bulunduğumuz Covid-19 pandemisinde mekân üretimi açısından önemli ve gereklidir.

Anahtar Kelimeler: Covid-19, ikincil (yazlık) konut, space syntax, esnek tasarım, konutta değişim-dönüşüm.

Onur Şuta, Sennur Akansel. Changes in the locational Organization of Secondary Residences Which Have Become Permanent Residences after Covid-19. Tasarım Kuram. 2022; 18(37): 111-132

Corresponding Author: Onur Şuta, Türkiye
Manuscript Language: Turkish
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