ISSN: 1302-2636 | E-ISSN: 2757-668X
Structure-Function-Environment Harmony in the Conservation Process of MadrasahBuildings: The Example of Kepenekci Sinan Madrasa [Tasarım Kuram]
Tasarım Kuram. 2021; 17(34): 33-49 | DOI: 10.14744/tasarimkuram.2021.54366

Structure-Function-Environment Harmony in the Conservation Process of MadrasahBuildings: The Example of Kepenekci Sinan Madrasa

Gülferah Örs Çorapçıoğlu, Sabri Şakı
Istanbul Arel University, Department Of Architecture

Madrasas, which are educational institutions of the Ottoman Period; are cultural assets that need to be protected with their monumental structures and historical identities. However they cannot maintain their original function, and damages due to functional changes or lack of maintenance are observed in the buildings that have survived to the present day. Madrasas consist of units such as the classroom, student rooms, semi-open space, porches, portal, tomb, and fountain, generally around a courtyard, where mass education is given. They are also planned to meet the accommodation needs of students. Madrasa is an educational institution that takes its name from the root “derese”, which, in Arabic, means the place where lessons are taught. A madrasa is where secondary and higher education is held, where the administrators are called mudarris, the teachers who teach lessons are called muids, and the diploma received is called “icazet”. Although the exact date of the madrasas are not known, IX. The Nishapur Madrasa is mentioned as a name in the 16th century, its official establishment by the state is dated to the Karakhanid Period in the X. century, and it is stated that its institutionalization took place in the Seljuk Period.
This study is conducted in order to reveal the conservation problems in madrasas that are being used with new functions. “Kepenekçi Sinan Madrasa”, which is currently not in-use is located within the borders of Süleymaniye Mosque and its surrounding World Heritage Site. In addition, Demirtaş neighborhood which comprises Kepenekçi Sinan Madrasa was declared as a renewal area in 2006. The building has survey and reconstitution drawings from the year 2008. The historical development of Kepenekçi Sinan Madrasa located in Istanbul, Fatih District has been researched and its current situation has been determined. In the chronological table of Zeynep Ahunbay’s research on Architect Sinan’s Educational Buildings, it is listed as “Mimar Sinan madrasas - 1545/46 Kepenekçi Hoca Sinan Madrasa”. The following restoration techniques are recommended in order to keep the madrasa structure alive; removal of unqualified joints (liberation), completion of missing parts (reintegration), elimination of carrier system and material damage (consolidation). However, the most suitable options should be determined by conducting studies with the analyzes and detailed researches by the experts of the relevant disciplines. Within the scope of the study a new function was proposed to preserve and maintain the building with its authentic characteristics. The existing environmental texture of the building and the spaces forming the plan scheme based on the restitution study were evaluated by considering the re-functioning (renovation) process as required by the scope.
To this end, detailed analysis of the current situation for the building and its surroundings has been made. The new function proposal has been developed based on the results of the analysis in which the positive and negative aspects of the structural and environmental conditions are evaluated. The historical and cultural value of the area according to its environmental characteristics, the knowledge of the existence of craft workshops in the past, its proximity to educational institutions, the potential for tourism, the possibilities that it can provide by being located at a central point and on the trade axis have been taken into account in the new function. According to the architectural features, the original function of the building, the fact that it has a plan scheme with a courtyard that can gather the units and can also provide an activity area, the relationship of the spaces with each other, the fact that all units have natural light and ventilation have created data to determine the new function. The small number and size of the units that make up the madrasa required that the users and additional equipment be limited in the new function to be given. Suggested new function has been determined as a “Traditional Handicrafts Center” for educational purposes, where the exhibition and sale of the produced works is also possible. The historical context of the region, the location of the building, its original function and spatial characteristics have been the guide in the new function proposal. In order to improve the position of the building isolated from its urban context, it is suggested that the surrounding texture be cleared of unqualified structures, and a guiding pedestrian axis should be created between the Süleymaniye Complex and Kepenekçi Sinan Madrasa by preventing the traffic flow. Considering the dilapidated condition of the building, it is seen that it is urgent and important to repair the madrasa building, in line with a comprehensive renovation project to be prepared based on the current restitution study.

Keywords: Madrasah, conservation, new function, Kepenekçi Sinan Madrasah.

Medrese Yapılarının Koruma Sürecinde Yapı-İşlev-Çevre Uyumu: Kepenekçi Sinan Medresesi Örneği

Gülferah Örs Çorapçıoğlu, Sabri Şakı
İstanbul Arel Üniversitesi, Lisansüstü Enstitüsü, Mimarlık Anabilim Dalı, İstanbul, Türkiye

Osmanlı Dönemi eğitim kurumları olan medreseler; anıtsal yapıları ve tarihi kimlikleri ile korunması gerekli ancak günümüzde özgün işlevini sürdüremeyen kültür varlıklarıdır. Yapıların günümüze ulaşmış örnekleri incelendiğinde, işlev değişiminden veya işlevsiz durumda bulunmalarından kaynaklanan tahribatların ortaya çıktığı, bunun yanı sıra çevresel doku bozulmaları nedeniyle içe dönük, yaşamayan mekânlara dönüşerek yıpranma süreçlerinin hızlandığı görülmektedir. Bu çalışma, günümüzde özgün işlevini sürdüremeyerek yeni işlevlerle kullanılmakta olan medrese yapılarındaki koruma sorunlarını ortaya koymak ve yeniden işlevlendirme sürecinin mevcut mekânsal özellikler ve çevre verileri doğrultusunda değerlendirilmesinin önem ve gerekliliğini vurgulamak amacıyla yapılmıştır. Medrese yapılarının tarihsel süreçteki mimari ve kurumsal yapılarına ilişkin bilgilerin aktarıldığı çalışmada; işlev değişimine bağlı ortaya çıkan sorunlara farklı örneklerle işaret edilirken, medreselerdeki koruma sorunlarına örnek oluşturan, kentin önemli bir noktasında bulunmasına karşın işlevsiz ve harap durumda olan “Kepenekçi Sinan Medresesi” detaylı olarak ele alınmıştır. Yapı, İstanbul, Fatih İlçesinde, 1985 yılında UNESCO dünya kültür mirası listesine alınmış olan Süleymaniye Camii ve çevresi koruma alanı sınırları içerisindedir. Ayrıca Medresenin bulunduğu Demirtaş mahallesi 2006/10501 sayılı Bakanlar Kurulu kararı ile yenileme alanı ilan edilen sınırlar içinde yer almaktadır. Yapının, Vakıflar Genel Müdürlüğü arşivinden ulaşılabilen 2008 yılına ait rölöve-restitüsyon çalışması mevcut olup, içinde bulunduğu önemli konumun yanı sıra, harap durumu nedeniyle de korumada öncelikli olarak ele alınması gerekli bir kültür varlığı olarak önem taşımaktadır. Çalışma kapsamında yapının tarihsel gelişimi aktarılmış, çalışmanın amacı gereği yapının özgün karakteristikleriyle korunarak sürdürülmesine yönelik yeni işlev önerisi geliştirilmiştir. Bu doğrultuda, yapı ve çevresiyle ilgili detaylı mevcut durum analizi yapılmıştır. Yapısal ve çevresel verilerin olumlu ve olumsuz yönlerinin değerlendirildiği analiz çalışması sonuçlarına ve mevcut restitüsyon etüdüne bağlı olarak yeni işlev önerisi geliştirilmiştir.

Anahtar Kelimeler: Medrese, koruma, yeni işlev, Kepenekçi Sinan Medresesi.

Gülferah Örs Çorapçıoğlu, Sabri Şakı. Structure-Function-Environment Harmony in the Conservation Process of MadrasahBuildings: The Example of Kepenekci Sinan Madrasa. Tasarım Kuram. 2021; 17(34): 33-49

Corresponding Author: Gülferah Örs Çorapçıoğlu, Türkiye
Manuscript Language: Turkish
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