ISSN: 1302-2636 | E-ISSN: 2757-668X
Fire Safety Precautions and Evacuation Simulation in Student Dormitories [Tasarım Kuram]
Tasarım Kuram. 2021; 17(34): 123-138 | DOI: 10.14744/tasarimkuram.2021.59023

Fire Safety Precautions and Evacuation Simulation in Student Dormitories

Muammer Yaman
Gazi University, Faculty of Architecture, Department of Architecture, Ankara, Turkey

Dormitory buildings are accommodation buildings where students meet their learning, living and resting needs. In order for the students in the dormitory buildings to continue their social and physical activities, it is important to provide the safety of life and property. Beds, cabinets, study units, books, etc. in the dormitory buildings increase the indoor fire load and this situation poses a great threat to the occupants during a possible fire. Elimination of threats and reduction of risks is achieved through the design of buildings with active and passive fire safety precautions.
Fire regulations are shaped according to past fire experiences and are organized as prescriptive approaches and performance-based approaches. In our country, there is Turkey’s Regulation on Fire Protection, TRFP which came into force in 2002 and has survived until today through various revisions. It is clearly stated that the rules contained in the regulation are binding and that their provisions are decisive, except for the qualified building groups (where there are not sufficient provisions in the regulation, in metro, marina, helipad, tunnel, stadium, airport and similar areas of use). In this case, the TRFP which was prepared with a prescriptive approach, limits the use, adoption, and dissemination of performance-based approaches at a certain level. It is important to present the requirements of the TRFP, and to compare the requirements with performance-based approaches in establishing fire safety precautions in dormitory buildings. It is necessary to construct and analyse occupant-based evacuation scenarios, which form the basis of performance-based approaches in dormitory buildings. In addition, it is important to analyse the congestions and crowded masses with all components and to control the fire safety designs.
In this paper, case study was carried out to implement the regulation requirements and to control the evacuation times of occupant-based evacuation scenarios. The dormitory building chosen as a case study has been extensively examined in accordance with the TRFP. In the examinations, compliance analyses were made within the scope of passive fire safety precautions and the design requirements of escape routes were emphasized. The evacuation possibilities of the dormitory building were designed on the architectural project and occupant load calculations throughout the building, and escape routes were defined, and controls were made. In addition, the evacuation scenarios based on the occupant of the dormitory buildings -the situation of the students in the sleeping units and the dining hall- and the fire evacuation process were analysed with a computer simulation program (Pathfinder). The number and capacity of escape routes on the case dormitory building were comparatively analyse according to TRFP, and computer simulation program. Evacuation conditions for dormitory buildings were evaluated based on compliance with the regulation and total evacuation times. It has been concluded that the TRFP, should be supported with performance-based solutions in order to eliminate possible risks within the framework of dormitory buildings.
As a result of the case study, it has been determined that there are only problems regarding the opening direction of the doors and narrowing the escape route within the framework of the TRFP. In occupant-based evacuation scenarios, especially when any of the alternative exit points are blocked (Scenarios A1 and B1), the total evacuation times are considerably longer than the usual evacuation times. This situation revealed that a serious problem may be encountered in the dormitory building fire and that fire risk scenarios in dormitory buildings should be investigated. The TRFP controls the escape numbers and capacities as a prescriptive regulation. However, in the case of the dormitory building, while complying with the regulation in general, serious problems arise especially when the students are asleep and any of the alternative exits are blocked. Building-specific and performance-based approaches need to be developed in solving and eliminating fire safety problems and risks.
As a result of the study, as the future of the countries, students should be provided with the most appropriate conditions to live, accommodation and rest. As the most basic requirement in dormitory buildings, the safety of life and property of students should be provided. It is necessary to update the fire regulations of the country by considering them in this framework, to create performance-based, occupant-based fire safety precautions specific to the architectural project and to provide appropriate evacuation conditions. It is expected that solutions will be produced for all risks that can be defined within the scope of the projects and that risks and threats will be eliminated in this context. Dormitory building fires are a life safety issue that cannot be underestimated; in this context, solutions should be developed.

Keywords: Fire evacuation, student dormitories, occupant load, fire safety, TRFP.

Öğrenci Yurt Binalarında Yangın Güvenlik Önlemleri ve Tahliye Simülasyonları

Muammer Yaman
Gazi Üniversitesi Mimarlık Fakültesi, Mimarlık Anabilim Dalı, Ankara, Türkiye

Geçmiş dönemlerden günümüze kadar olan süreçte ortaya çıkan öğrenci yurt binası yangınları büyük can ve mal kayıplarına neden olmuştur. Can ve mal kayıplarının azaltılması ve ülkelerin geleceği olarak öğrencilerin en iyi koşullarda güven içinde yaşamalarının sağlanması en temel gerekliliktir. Öğrenci yurt binalarının yangın güvenliğinin oluşturulmasında mevzuat gerekliliklerinin ortaya konulması, aktif ve pasif yangın güvenlik önlemleri ile kayıpların en aza indirilmesi ve güvenli yangın tahliyelerinin sağlanması amaçlanmalıdır. Çalışma kapsamında, öğrenci yurt binalarında yangın güvenlik önlemlerinin oluşturulmasında ülkemiz yangın mevzuatı Binaların Yangından Korunması Hakkında Yönetmelik, BYKHY, ele alınmış ve örneklem çalışma üzerinde pasif yangın güvenlik önlemleri değerlendirmeleri yapılmıştır. Örneklem çalışmaya ait kullanıcı yükü hesaplanmış, BYKHY uygunluk analizleri yapılmış ve mimari proje üzerinde tahliye planı hazırlanmıştır. Örneklem üzerinde ayrıca bina kullanımına ve çıkışların engellenmesi durumuna göre farklı tahliye senaryoları kurgulanarak toplam tahliye süreleri hesaplanmıştır. Tahliye sürelerinin hesaplanmasında Pathfinder bilgisayar simülasyon programı kullanılmıştır. Hükme dayalı bir yangın mevzuatı olan BYKHY esaslarına göre, genel olarak uygun bulunan örneklem öğrenci yurt binasının, tahliye simülasyonları kapsamında elde edilen toplam tahliye sürelerinde problemler oluşturabileceği tespit edilmiştir. Özellikle öğrencilerin yatakhanelerde uykuda bulunmaları halinde (gece kullanım) yangının ortaya çıkması ve çıkışlardan herhangi birinin engellenmesi durumunda tahliye sürelerinin uzaması ciddi problemlere neden olacaktır. Çalışmanın sonucunda, öğrenci yurt binaları çerçevesinde, BYKHY esaslarının projelere özgü performansa dayalı çözümlerle desteklenebileceği, geliştirilebileceği ve revize edilebileceği belirtilmiştir. Yurt binaları tahliyelerinde, senaryolar üzerinden risklerin değerlendirilmesi ve risklere yanıt verebilen, rasyonel ve gerçekçi yangın güvenlik önlemlerinin geliştirilmesi önem taşımaktadır. Öğrenci yurt binası yangınları hafife alınamayacak bir can güvenliği sorunudur; bu bağlamda çözüm önerileri üretilmelidir.

Anahtar Kelimeler: Yangın tahliyesi, öğrenci yurt binaları, kullanıcı yükü, yangın güvenliği, BYKHY.

Muammer Yaman. Fire Safety Precautions and Evacuation Simulation in Student Dormitories. Tasarım Kuram. 2021; 17(34): 123-138

Corresponding Author: Muammer Yaman, Türkiye
Manuscript Language: Turkish
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