ISSN: 1302-2636 | E-ISSN: 2757-668X
From ‘Decorative Arts’ to the Department of Interior Architecture [Tasarım Kuram]
Tasarım Kuram. 2022; 18(36): 1-17 | DOI: 10.14744/tasarimkuram.2022.64497

From ‘Decorative Arts’ to the Department of Interior Architecture

Saadet Aytıs
Mimar Sinan Fine Arts University, Faculty of Architecture, Department of Interior Architecture, Istanbul, Türkiye

The Department of Decorative Arts, which entered into service in 1914 within the body of Mekteb-i Sanâyi-i Nefîse-i Şâhâne established in 1882, is the core of Mimar Sinan Fine Arts University Faculty of Architecture Department of Interior Architecture, Turkey’s first interior architecture school which has a deep-rooted history. However, the year 1923, when the Department of Dahili Tezyini Arts (Interior Decoration) was established was accepted as the start of interior architecture education in Turkey. When the department was established, interior decoration meant the ornamentation and decoration of the interior, domestic furniture, and the ornamentation of the interior in the first period of the industrial exhibition. Along with architecture, the early Republic period and afterward experienced an increase in interest in indoor, design, the use of functional furniture, as well as media and advertisement interest in this topic.
Within the scope of the school that takes the name Fine Arts Academy in 1928, the Department of Interior Decoration, which hosts national and international teachers, undergoes significant developments with the changing regulations and the opening of workshops. The country’s sense of interior decoration evolves in parallel with the Academy. While the academy’s education is influenced by global and Turkish developments, it also evolves and continues dynamically, with the establishment of new departments and workshops. The Interior Architecture Workshop, founded in 1929, is one of the most notable examples. As a result, the Department of Interior Decoration becomes more specialized, and interior design becomes a more important profession in Turkey.
The influence of foreign instructors who came to the Academy in the 1930s lasted for many years. The influences that begin with the French ecole shift to the German ecole. Beginning in the 1930s, the Academy began to provide notable experience to students through wood workshops, in addition to theoretical and applied training. In addition to education, both Interior Architecture Workshop teachers and Architecture teachers are interested in furniture design; these designs are produced in the workshop and used in various places throughout the Academy. Notable efforts are made to improve the efficiency of the wood workshop, which contributes to the education in the Interior Architecture Branch. Thus, the production of custom-design furniture becomes possible.
The Academy, which has operated in various buildings since its founding, suffers significant damage in a fire that breaks out only after it has been relocated to the Double Palaces in Fınıdklı in 1948. Workshops, classes, offices, lecture theaters, and rooms are damaged beyond repair. The wood workshop, which is located outside of the building and was not damaged by the fire, emerges as a notable savior during this difficult period. People work around the clock to make the facilities usable again and to keep education going. The department’s instructors design the necessary furniture as well as continue production in school and outside workshops. The building, where nothing but the walls remained, was reborn as an art school thanks to great commitment.
The Department of Interior Architecture is renamed the Department of Decorative Arts Interior Architecture Workshop in 1955. Interior architecture education following the global trends and especially in Europe, places a strong emphasis on international relationships and collaborations, with both national and international teachers. Regarding an invitation, the French National School of Decorative Arts (Ecole Des Beaux Arts) came to Turkey and opened an exhibition in the Academy saloons in 1965, leaving a deep impression.
With the Law enacted in 1969, the Academy’s official name was changed to Istanbul State Fine Arts Academy (IDGSA), and the institution gained scientific autonomy. The IDGSA High Decorative Arts Department had two distinct disciplines, Interior Architecture, and Industrial Design in the 1970s. According to their final year options, students graduate as industrial designers or interior architects. In the upcoming years, the concepts of interior architecture and interior architect begin to solidify, as does the importance and interest shown in the design of spaces. Following the activities of the Interior Architects Community, the establishment of the Chamber of Interior Architects is also valuable in terms of emphasizing the significance of interior design and professional dignity. The Chamber of Interior Architects, UCTEA, gains prominence as one of the first professional organizations.
The institution first enters under the roof of YÖK (Higher Council of Education) in 1981 and was renamed Mimar Sinan University in 1982 and Mimar Sinan Fine Arts University in 2004. It still carries out activities under the Department of Interior Architecture Faculty of Architecture.

Keywords: Interior architecture, decorative arts, fine arts, academy, interior decoration.

‘Tezyinî Sanatlar’dan İç Mimarlık Bölümü’ne

Saadet Aytıs
Mimar Sinan Güzel Sanatlar Üniversitesi Mimarlık Fakültesi, İç Mimarlık Bölümü, İstanbul, Türkiye

Türkiye’nin ilk ve en köklü içmimarlık okulu olan Mimar Sinan Güzel Sanatlar Üniversitesi Mimarlık Fakültesi İç Mimarlık Bölümü’nün ilk nüvesini oluşturan birim, 1882 yılında kurulan Mekteb-i Sanâyi-i Nefîse-i Şâhâne bünyesinde 1914 yılında faaliyete geçen Tezyinat Bölümü’dür; ancak, Dâhili Tezyinat Bölümü’nün kurulduğu 1923 yılı Türkiye’de iç mimarlık eğitiminin başladığı yıl olarak kabul edilir. Bölümün kurulduğu dönemlerde dâhili tezyinat denildiğinde iç mekânların süslenmesi, bezenmesi, ev mobilyaları ve ilk dönemlerini yaşayan sanayi sergilerindeki iç mekânların süslenmesi anlaşılır. Erken cumhuriyet dönemi ve devamında mimari kabuk yanında iç mekanlara da gösterilen ilginin arttığı, fonksiyona uygun mobilyaların tasarlandığı ve mekanlarda kullanıldığı, bu konunun basında ve reklamlarda da oldukça fazla işlenmeye başlandığı dikkat çeker. 1928 yılında Güzel Sanatlar Akademisi ismini alan okul bünyesinde yerli ve yabancı hocalarla eğitim yapan Dâhili Tezyinat Bölümü yıllar içerisinde değişen yönetmelikler, açılan atölyeler eşliğinde önemli gelişmeler yaşar. Bünyesinde kurulan ahşap atölyesiyle öğrencilerin uygulamalı eğitimleri sağlanırken, kurum içi birçok mobilyanın da üretimi buralarda gerçekleşir. Dâhili Tezyinat Bölümü hocaları kurum dışı işler için çokça teklif alır, bunlarla ilgili kurum tarafından görevlendirilirler. Ülkenin iç mekân düzenleme anlayışı, Akademi’yle paralel olarak gelişme gösterir. 1955 yılında Dâhili Mimari Bölümü’nün adı Dekoratif Sanatlar Bölümü İç Mimari Atölyesi olarak değişir. 1965 yılında Paris Dekoratif Sanatlar Okulu’nun Türkiye’ye gelerek Akademi salonlarında açtığı sergi ülke genelinde büyük yankı uyandırır. 1969 yılında çıkan yasayla Akademi’nin resmi adı, İstanbul Devlet Güzel Sanatlar Akademisi olarak değişir ve bilimsel özerklik gelir. 1970’li yıllarda İDGSA Yüksek Dekoratif Sanatlar Bölümü çatısı altında İç Mimarlık ve Endüstri Tasarımı olarak iki ayrı disiplinin varlığı söz konusudur. 1981 yılında YÖK çatısı altına giren, 1982 yılında Mimar Sinan Üniversitesi, 2004 yılında Mimar Sinan Güzel Sanatlar Üniversitesi adını alan kurumda İç Mimarlık Bölümü Mimarlık Fakültesi bünyesinde varlığını sürdürmektedir.

Anahtar Kelimeler: İçmimarlık, tezyinî sanatlar, sanayî nefîse, akademi, dâhili tezyinat.

Saadet Aytıs. From ‘Decorative Arts’ to the Department of Interior Architecture. Tasarım Kuram. 2022; 18(36): 1-17

Corresponding Author: Saadet Aytıs, Türkiye
Manuscript Language: Turkish
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